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Jehovah's Witnesses In The Divine Purpose


Theocratic Order Comes in as World War II Approaches

TOM: Before you leave tonight, John, will you tell us how the work was progressing in Europe during this time?

JOHN: By the year 1934 the Society was operating branch offices in forty-nine countries on every continent. a These were in close touch with the Brooklyn headquarters office and the work was developing along the pattern being reported in the United States. But Catholic Fascism was expanding in Europe and bringing increased difficulties to every phase of the work. As we have mentioned, the work was banned in Italy in 1932, although about fifty Witnesses continued to operate there. They were being continually hounded by the police, who were arresting even those persons who accepted literature, b while a number of the Italian brothers themselves were imprisoned by Mussolini's Fascist government. The work continued in Spain also, in spite of the Fascist revolution from 1936 to 1939, but progress was slow although in the midst of this civil war the Spanish Witnesses reported placing 105,570 pieces of Bible literature. c In faraway Japan restrictions were placed upon the work in 1933 and a total ban in 1939.

In Germany, of course, there was more activity, in spite of the fact that, as you will recall, Hitler's government had seized control of the Society's property at Magdeburg and had banned all activity of Jehovah's witnesses as to meetings and distribution of literature. That was in 1933, in June. Although the property was returned to the Society for its occupation in October of that year, it was not possible for them to use their facilities because the literature was still under ban. This stalemate continued until the war broke out in 1939, at which time the German government again took over the buildings belonging to the Society and converted them to their own wartime use.


As we mentioned, Brother Rutherford was watching the situation closely in Germany to see what could be done. On October 7, 1934, a bold and decisive step was taken. In response to a letter from headquarters circulated to the congregations throughout Germany, all the brothers were asked to meet in some way or another on that date to pass a resolution of protest simultaneously with their brothers throughout the land. This the congregations did, and after a solemn prayer to Jehovah they dispatched their protest by telegram to the officials of the Hitler government in Berlin.


The protest pointed out that, contrary to God's law and in violation of the rights of Jehovah's witnesses, Hitler's government had forbidden them to meet together to study God's Word and worship and serve Him. The Witnesses charged a direct conflict between Hitler's law and God's law, and the brothers advised Hitler—

that at any cost we will obey God's commandments, will meet together for the study of his Word, and will worship and serve him as he has commanded. If your government or officers do violence to us because we are obeying God, then our blood will be upon you and you will answer to Almighty God. d

After assuring him and his government that they had no interest in political affairs, but were wholly devoted to God's kingdom under Christ, and assuring him that no harm or injury would come to anyone as a result of their work, the telegram was signed: "Respectfully, Jehovah's witnesses," naming the town or city where they had met as a congregation.

Again the unity of Jehovah's witnesses was manifested throughout the world, for on this same Sunday morning, before going into the field service, congregations of Jehovah's witnesses in fifty countries also assembled in support of their German brothers. After prayer to Jehovah, each group sent this cable of protest addressed to Hitler and his government.

Hitler Government, Berlin, Germany. Your ill-treatment of Jehovah's witnesses shocks all good people of earth and dishonors God's name. Refrain from further persecuting Jehovah's witnesses; otherwise God will destroy you and your national party.

The cable was signed "JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES," citing the name of the city or town where the congregation was assembled. e

TOM: That must have caused a terrific impact on Hitler's government. What was the reaction?

JOHN: The only visible response the brothers had then was an intensified program of persecution. But since that time the Society has come into possession of a sworn account of what actually did take place as a result of this flood of protests. This account was prepared by Karl R. A. Wittig and signed before a notary public in Frankfort on the Main, November 13, 1947.

DECLARATION—On October 7,1934, having been previously summoned, I visited Dr. Wilhelm Frick, at that time Minister of the Interior of the Reich and Prussia, in his home office of the Reich, located in Berlin, 6 am Koenigsplatz, since I was a plenipotentiary of General Ludendorff. I was to accept communications, contents of which were an attempt to persuade General Ludendorff to discontinuance of his objection to the Nazi regime. During my discussion with Dr. Frick, Hitler suddenly appeared and began taking part in the conversation. When our discussion obligatorily dealt with the action against the International Bible Students Association [Jehovah's witnesses] in Germany up until now, Dr. Frick showed Hitler a number of telegrams protesting against the Third Reich's persecution of the Bible Students, saying: "If the Bible Students do not immediately get in line we will act against them using the strongest means." After which Hitler jumped to his feet and with clenched fists hysterically screamed: "This brood will be exterminated in Germany!" Four years after this discussion I was able, by my own observations, to convince myself, during my seven years in protective custody in the hell of the Nazi's concentration-camps at Sachsenhausen, Flossenburg and Mauthausen—I was in prison until released by the Allies—that Hitler's outburst of anger was not just an idle threat. No other group of prisoners of the named concentration-camps was exposed to the sadism of the SS-soldiery in such a fashion as the Bible Students were. It was a sadism marked by an unending chain of physical and mental tortures, the likes of which no language in the world can express. f

At the very beginning of this time of crisis in 1933, The Watch Tower as of November 1, under the title "Fear Them Not," carried a leading article that clearly and Scripturally made plain the responsibility resting upon the remnant of Jeho-


vah's anointed ones in this critical time. It appeared under the caption text from Matthew 10:26,27, which reads in the King James Version: "Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known. What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the house tops." The article explained that these things to be told are those things that Jehovah has revealed in private, or in obscurity as "in darkness."

These truths that the world has not seen or understood are then to be spoken plainly and without fear as a warning against the enemy and so that persons of good will may learn. The article called attention to the marked hatred and malice expressed by the powers of the various nations in the persecution and arrest of Jehovah's witnesses, particularly after the coming of the Lord to his temple in 1918. The bitter enmity particularly of the Roman Catholic Church was exposed, including the false charges of this religious organization that Jehovah's witnesses are Communists and Socialists, engaged in political schemes for the purpose of overthrowing present earthly governments. That this opposition might lead to the death of some of God's faithful servants, it was pointed out, seems indicated from the Scriptures.

The issue is now squarely before every one of the remnant, and about that issue there cannot be the slightest doubt. Each one of the remnant must courageously and confidently face the issue. ... If one of the temple class, learning the great truths now due to be proclaimed, should quietly hold these to himself and avoid an opportunity to tell them, and at the same time pursue a course of action that he thinks would save him from criticism by the enemy's agents, he is thereby denying the Lord, . . . because he is failing to be obedient to the Lord's commandment. ... Those who will share with Christ Jesus the glories of his kingdom must now be faithful and true witnesses to the name of Jehovah God, telling with boldness and with joy what they have learned of God at the temple, and thus they will have a part in the vindication of his holy name. g


In 1934 another issue was raised that fanned the opposition into one of the hottest flames of this entire campaign of malice and hatred. It had its beginning in Germany in 1932 when Hitler sought to regiment the people in continental Europe by enforcing compulsory flag salute of his Swastika. This issue struck at the foundation of Jehovah's witnesses' allegiance to the Supreme Sovereign, Jehovah God. It swept into the United States and Canada, where zealous patriots who were enemies of Jehovah's faithful servants seized upon it as a means of destroying the Witnesses. Flag salute ceremonies were organized in the schools, but children of Jehovah's witnesses declined to participate because of their conscience.

On Monday, June 3, 1935, on the last day of the five-day convention in Washington, D.C., Brother Rutherford conducted a Question-and-Answer Meeting. In answer to a question on the flag salute by children in school Brother Rutherford told the convention that it was unfaithfulness to God to salute an earthly emblem, ascribing salvation to it, and that he would not do it. Shortly afterward, on September 20, 1935, there occurred an incident that was caught up and publicized throughout the United States. This was the case of an American schoolboy, one of Jehovah's witnesses, who had declined to salute the American flag. h The parents of the boy were held responsible for his deflection. The Associated Press approached the president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society for an official statement as to the view of Jehovah's witnesses on this new issue. i He told


them to return later and he would have a statement ready for them.

Then, October 6, 1935, he arranged for a coast-to-coast chain broadcast and gave his reply to the nation in his famous lecture "Saluting a Flag." This talk was published in a thirty-two-page booklet entitled "Loyalty" and distributed by the millions of copies. In this Scriptural reply to the American press it was pointed out that Jehovah's witnesses respect the flag but their Scriptural obligations and their relationship to Jehovah strictly forbid them to salute any image or representation. To them this would amount to an act of worship contrary to the principles of the second of the Ten Commandments recorded at Exodus 20:4-6. It was shown further that Christian parents have the primary responsibility to teach their children and, since the most important counsel is found in the Bible, children must be taught the truth according to the parents' appreciation and understanding of the Bible.

TOM: Did that reply quiet things down?

JOHN: No, opposition only increased. In the course of time hundreds and then thousands of these innocent children of Jehovah's witnesses were caught in this national controversy. But these youngsters demonstrated their love for Jehovah along with their parents by standing firm against the jeers and ostracism of the majority of their schoolmates. In so doing they put to the test the quality of the home Bible training they were receiving from their parents in the Lord. By remaining steadfast in their loyalty to Jehovah they made history and brought into consternation the highest counsels of the nation.

TOM: You mean the issue was finally taken to the Supreme Court?

JOHN: Yes, though not for many years. On November 6, 1935, two children refused to salute the flag and were expelled from the public school at Minersville, Pennsylvania. j Their father being arrested, the case was taken to the Federal District Court, which decided favorably for Jehovah's witnesses. We also won in the Circuit Court of Appeals when our favorable decision was contested. Finally, in 1940, the case came on to the Supreme Court of the United States with disastrous results, which we'll outline in more detail later.


The work in Britain was expanding but it was slow. In 1931 there were 365 congregations, with about 4,000 Witnesses regularly reporting. This included 196 pioneers and, all together, these Witnesses were distributing annually between one and a half to two million books and book-lets. k In 1937 a special call to wakefulness was sounded and the response was gratifying. Just before World War II the number of pioneers in Britain had gone up to nearly 1,500 and there were about 5,000 publishers engaging in the field work.

As elsewhere, opposition was raised in Britain. During 1938 and 1939 particularly several Catholic-Fascist attacks were withstood. In some instances priest-led mobs assaulted the Witnesses and in others meetings were interfered with. 1

One evidence of Catholic opposition occurred October 14, 1938, when the London Catholic Herald of that date published a libelous attack saying that Judge Rutherford, as president of the Watch Tower Society, was carrying on a work subversive to the interests of the British people. Brother Rutherford's reaction was imme-


diate. He gave instructions to the Society's lawyers in Britain to start three libel suits against the London Catholic Herald. One suit was entered by Judge Rutherford as an individual, the second by Judge Rutherford as president of the Watch Tower Society and the third by the Watch Tower Society as a corporation. This unexpected reaction brought the Catholic Herald to terms and they urgently requested a settlement. Brother Rutherford agreed to withdraw his suits if the periodical would pay all the cost of the action to that time and would publish a front-page retraction dictated by Judge Rutherford to be printed in a border of black so that everybody would be sure to see it. Knowing their case was hopeless in the British courts, the paper readily agreed and the retraction appeared on the front page of its November 25 issue. m

London was the center of an outstanding assembly, also in 1938. Because of the tense political situation on the European continent Judge Rutherford was in London for six weeks beforehand and he received the various Branch servants from Europe who were still free to travel. The one convention for Europe, therefore, was scheduled to be held at Royal Albert Hall, the largest suitable hall in London.

Again something new was attempted. Radio-telephone communication had proved very successful during the period of extensive network broadcasts. It was therefore decided to arrange fifty conventions in various parts of the earth meeting simultaneously and connected directly by wire services. In spite of the fact that nothing like this had ever been attempted, not even for broadcasting a message by the king of England, the program was highly successful and two outstanding talks were carried from London to forty-nine other cities in England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, the United States and Australia.

The first of these was on Saturday, September 10, on the subject "Fill the Earth." This striking talk presented Scriptural arguments to show that Armageddon survivors with the hope of life on earth would be privileged to share in the procreation mandate first issued to Adam and Eve in Eden. The second talk, "Face the Facts," to the public, was a daring challenge to the people of the world to recognize the serious condition in which the world found itself and warned the democratic peoples of the approaching Catholic-Fascist bid for world control. n

In the course of time 12,000,000 copies of the lecture "Face the Facts" were distributed in booklet form all over the earth. o

A new service begun in 1936 in Newark, New Jersey, was further developed in London. In advertising the lecture "Face the Facts" not only were placards suspended from the shoulders of the individual Witnesses fore and aft but, additionally, between those wearing the placards, other Witnesses carried signs fastened to poles. These signs read alternately "Religion Is a Snare and a Racket" and "Serve God and Christ the King." The brothers then formed a parade line that was six miles long and walked through the busy sections of the city passing out handbills as they went advertising the talk. This spectacular feature came to be known as "information marching" p and was used extensively for some time to advertise the recorded public lecture, though later the Witnesses would walk singly or in pairs instead of forming a parade line.



So convinced was Judge Rutherford concerning the coming of a Catholic-Fascist-Nazi world war that he arranged for another warning to be sounded, particularly to the American public. On October 2, 1938, after he returned to New York, he delivered the timely and stinging lecture "Fascism or Freedom," which later appeared in booklet form and was circulated by the millions. He spoke in New York city to an audience of 7,000 and to an uncounted invisible audience through a network of fifty radio stations.

As one evidence of Catholic action's purpose "to destroy American freedom," Judge Rutherford in this speech made this quotation from a letter of Roman Catholic priest O'Brien, of Syracuse, New York, published in L'Aurora:

This land belongs to us by every right. Long enough have we compromised on every important question. Now we demand what is really ours and we are going to have it; . . . peacefully, honestly, if we may; if necessary we are ready to fight and die for it. ... We want as cabinet members children of the holy mother church holding important positions in the entire structure of our government. . . . From now on the Protestant heresies will receive the treatment ascribed to the Protestant heretics ... by our Canon laws. . . . We are ready prepared for 1940. . . . All . . . institutions . . . must be wiped out or placed under the protection of our Hierarchy . . .q

Further evidences were produced from other writers to this same effect. Then the Society's president detailed a number of incidents of unlawful acts to demonstrate collusion between certain public officials and representatives of the Roman Catholic Church:

On September 11 last I delivered an address at London, which was broadcast to many countries. More than 100 radio stations in America broadcast that speech "FACE THE FACTS". To prevent the people from hearing the facts Catholic Action flooded many radio stations with threatening letters, and some stations, because of fear, yielded to their demands. . . .

At Chicago, . . . the Navy Pier auditorium was leased for the convention of Jehovah's witnesses, and everything was in readiness, when Cardinal Mundelein's representative demanded the cancellation of the lease and the prevention of this Christian assembly. Public officials yielded to that demand.

At Rochester, New York, Commissioner McFarlin rented to Jehovah's witnesses the city hall for their convention. Two days before the convention opened the Catholic priest, John Randall, acting under command of the bishop, demanded that the city cancel the lease, shut out Jehovah's witnesses, and prevent their peaceable assembly, and the cancellation was made, and for one day this hall was closed against that Christian body. Then on application Justice Voorhis issued an Order of Court requiring the hall to be opened, and it was done.

At Ottawa, Canada, the Coliseum was engaged for this convention of Christians. Ten days later notice was served on Jehovah's witnesses by the Board of Control that the use of the Coliseum "is granted subject to there being no utterances made . . . against any church or religious denomination or those connected with churches or religious denominations."

At Little Rock, Arkansas, the city council, at the instance of the Catholic bishop Morris and his organization of Knights of Columbus, prevented the peaceable assembly of Jehovah's witnesses in the public park for worship and to listen to the London lecture.

At Colorado Springs the Catholic clergy and other politicians signed a petition, falsely charging "that Rutherford is against Christianity and all it stands for, and the American flag, and the ideals it stands for", and thereby induced the radio station to cancel its broadcast contract and the press to publish the libelous statement.

Many other radio stations in the chain were bullied and threatened. As to the effect thereof I quote a letter of a radio manager, which is a sample of many others, addressed to the Watch Tower agency: "We regret to advise that due to the prevalence of Catholicism in this territory we must refrain from taking the broadcast." Many radio stations were threatened by Catholic priests if they broadcast the lecture.

At New Orleans the Coliseum arena was leased for the assembly in convention of these Christian people to worship God and to hear the London speech. At the instance of the Catholic Hierarchy the doors of the Arena were locked and the literature of Jehovah's

q Fascism or Freedom (1939), p. 14; Consolation, Vol. 19, June 15, 1938, p 14, reproduction of original.

witnesses withheld from them and they were prevented from assembling. Another hall was then engaged, and Catholic Action succeeded in having that hall closed to Jehovah's witnesses. A third hall was taken, and while a local speaker was delivering a Bible lecture the audience was intimidated by a squad of police under the command of one McNamara. The fourth hall was rented, and a Catholic police squad stopped the installation of telephone wires in that building, and thus prevented the assembly of Jehovah's witnesses there to receive the London speech. Then the Jockey Club, outside the city limits, was leased for the peaceable assembly and worship by these Christians. Under pressure from the Catholic Hierarchy the parish sheriff prevented the installation of the telephone wires and the use of that place of assembly. Then, as a last resort, a private open-air lot was taken, and there on Sunday, September the llth, a body of Christian people assembled peaceably and to worship God and to hear the London address. Electrical equipment had been installed. A squad of police, under command of McNamara was on the ground before the audience arrived. McNamara, under the direction of the Catholic Hierarchy, stepped forward and excitedly cried out to the audience assembled: "Stand back"; and then, turning to his police squad, he gave this command: "Men, when the lecture starts stop it, even if you have to break the electrical equipment; and the first man who interferes, shoot to kill." When the lecture began at London, McNamara himself cut the telephone wires, disabled the electrical equipment, and, while he was doing so, the police squad stood with their hands on their guns, and thus the people again were forcibly prevented to peaceably assemble, freely worship and exercise freedom of speech. Immediately following this highhanded and unlawful action the Catholic newspaper known as Catholic Action of the South, edited by the "Right Reverend" Wynhoven, published the following: "It is indeed a source of deep gratification that notwithstanding the persistent efforts of the witnesses of Jehovah, their three-day convention in New Orleans was frustrated. . . . Practically every large hall in the city was denied them. . . . The chief of police's office and the sheriff of Jefferson Parish unhesitatingly stepped in to stop effectively this insult to New Orleans." The Federal Court is preventing a repetition today of such unlawful acts, but Wynhoven won't publish that. . . .r

The speaker then pointed out that when such facts are presented to the people for their enlightenment "the Hierarchy howls and says: 'Lies! Put a gag in the mouths of those and do not permit them to speak.' " Then he asked:

Is it wrong to publish the truth concerning a bunch of hijackers that are robbing the people? No! Then is it wrong to publish the truth concerning a religious organization, operating hypocritically and doing the same thing? Americans have heretofore been at liberty to express themselves freely on public matters. No sane man in America would desire to do the president any personal harm, but many sincere and honest Americans properly criticize the policy of the president, and the newspapers and the radio stations are not forbidden to publish such criticism. Is the Hierarchy so sacred that it has greater privileges than the president of the United States? What right has Rome to tell the Americans that they cannot publish the truth about the despoilers of the people? Shall honest men be gagged and compelled to remain silent while this bunch of hijackers destroy the liberties of the people? Above all, shall the people be denied their God-given privileges of peaceable assembly and freedom of worship of Almighty God, and freedom of speech concerning his kingdom and those who oppose it? s

This did not end the Catholic-Fascist opposition in America. One more outstanding encounter was to be experienced as a climax to this phase of the war, though serious outbreaks of violence were not to abate in the United States for several years.


Now twenty years of the New World society were coming to an end. In 1918 Jehovah had come to his temple with his "messenger of the covenant," Jesus Christ. A year later the New World society was born. What had this period seen in the development of the theocratic organization?

In 1919, along with the birth of the New World society, we saw the initial feature of theocratic order established in the congregations through the appointment of a service director by the Brooklyn head-


quarters. t This was in connection with the Golden Age work. This beginning of centralized theocratic direction, accompanied by the outpouring of Jehovah's spirit, began to bear fruit in time to harness the growing numbers of these earnest workers for the strenuous declaration of Jehovah's judgments from 1922 to 1928. Assisting in further developments of unified activity, the Society's printed service paper, Bulletin, u first distributed to pioneers in 1917, was made available monthly in 1922 to all "class workers" and contained Society-prepared testimonies called "canvasses" that these brothers were encouraged to memorize and use in the field service. Throughout the years the great variety of service instructions thus furnished had made possible a gradual schooling in advancing preaching methods.

We have seen too, throughout these years, how the organization was being strengthened in structure. From 1922 forward almost every year's report mentioned the subject of organization. v Then 1932 saw the "elective elders" replaced in the congregation by a group of mature brothers called a "service committee," who were elected by the congregation to assist the local service director appointed by the Society. w It was not until 1938, however, that the final change to strictly theocratic order took place. In that year The Watchtower published "Unity in Action" followed by a series of two articles dealing with the subject of organization. x The caption text was Isaiah 60:17, Rotherham's translation.

MARIA: I have that in the New World Translation. It reads: "Instead of the copper I shall bring in gold, and instead of the iron I shall bring in silver, and instead of the wood, copper, and instead of the stones, iron; and I will appoint peace as your overseers and righteousness as your task assigners."

JOHN: This prophecy emphasized the improvement promised to the organization of God. During the 1920's and early 1930's the democratic arrangement in structure of the congregations did not make for full peace and unity. On the contrary, in many instances personalities played an important part in the activity of the service group.

In the exhaustive study of the organizational operations of the early Christian congregation conducted in these three issues of The Watchtower, it was Scripturally proved that the power to appoint overseers and their assistants rested in the hands of a governing body. This was composed of the twelve apostles and other mature brothers of the congregation at Jerusalem. In harmony with this pattern and all the scriptures bearing on the subject, it became clear that the power of appointment of servants in congregations in the modern society of Jehovah's witnesses rightfully rests with the governing body of the "faithful and discreet slave" class, being directed by Christ Jesus from Jehovah's temple.

It was suggested, therefore, that the brothers in the various congregations throughout the world consider a resolution presented in The Watchtower and which was similar to resolutions already adopted and submitted to the Society's headquarters by the London, England, congregation, the greater New York congregation, the Chicago, Illinois, congregation, the Los Angeles, California, congregation and many others. The resolution reads:

We, the company of God's people taken out for his name, and now at -----, recognize that God's government is a pure theocracy and that Christ Jesus is at the temple and in full


charge and control of the visible organization of Jehovah, as well as the invisible, and that "THE SOCIETY" is the visible representative of the Lord on earth, and we therefore request "The Society" to organize this company for service and to appoint the various servants thereof, so that all of us may work together in peace, righteousness, harmony and complete unity. We attach hereto a list of names of persons in this company that to us appear more fully mature and who therefore appear to be best suited to fill the respective positions designated for service. y


This amounted to a surrender of democratic power or presbyter style of church control that had existed in the congregations for sixty years. z Most congregations readily adopted this resolution, and the few that did not have since lost their vision and privileges of Kingdom service. Commenting on this period of development of theocratic order among Jehovah's witnesses in modern times, The Watchtower makes reference to the building program of King Solomon, as corresponding with what took place with Jehovah's people after A.D. 1918:

"And it came to pass at the end of twenty years, when Solomon had built the two houses, the house of the Lord, and the king's house." (1 Ki. 9:10; 2 Chron. 8:1) The completion of that particular building program of Solomon included the temple, the king's palace, and the house of the forest of Lebanon for judgment (and also for an armory, 2 Chronicles 9:15, 16); which completion took place in the twentieth year after the beginning of the temple, . . . and which "twentieth year" ends with the beginning of the spring of 1938, and hence corresponds with the [lunar] year 1937 which ends in the spring of 1938 . . .

Then after commenting on many facts relating to the judgments of God during this period and the relationship of the anointed remnant to their "other sheep" companions, as had been recently emphasized in The Watchtower, this comment was made:

The Scriptures show that, after the twenty years of Solomon's building program as above set out, he engaged in a nation-wide building program. (1 Ki. 9:10, 17-23; 2 Chron. 8:1-10) Then came the queen of Sheba "from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon." (Matt. 12:42; 1 Ki. 10:1-10; 2 Chron. 9:1-9, 12) This suggests the question: What is in the immediate future for the people of Jehovah on earth? With full confidence we will wait, and we shall see. aa

Thus on the thrilling theme of expectancy for a tremendous world-wide expansion the twenty-year building program of Jehovah's theocratic society drew to its close, after which Jehovah by his King put the theocratic order in control of the New World society of Jehovah's witnesses. But now, in retrospect, the overwhelming conclusion shows that the hand of Jehovah was upon his people, guiding and directing their steps, and that his hand was against the powerful satanic combine of Fascism, Nazism and Catholic Action that not only had failed to heed Jehovah's message of their doom but had violently opposed his servants in their proclamation of it.

At the end of this modern-day twenty-year period Jehovah's organization thus became united world-wide, fully organized under the King Jesus Christ, standing as a theocratic symbol of the rich blessings to be gained by adherence to righteous principles and pure worship. On the other side and in a rapidly accelerating pace, the nations of the world came at last to the brink of a second world conflagration. Instead of the peace that these nations of Satan's world had so confidently forecast through their counterfeit "political expression of God's kingdom on earth," the League of Nations, their hypocritical attitude toward God and toward each other had led them literally to fashion their plowshares into swords and their pruning hooks into spears. At this threatening point we'll start our discussion next week.

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