THE GOLDEN AGE
Behold! Time's gateway open swings,
And Peace is poised on outspread wings;
And joy stands tiptoe while she sings:
Good-bye old years!
Good-bye old tears!
For angels wait to bar this gate
On moaning Misery and Hate.
Love holds the key
Of things to be;
And Hope holds out a fair white page,
And bids you write,
With deep delight.
The glory of THE GOLDEN AGE.
S. Agnes Nourse.
WISDOM of the right order is essential to the welfare and happiness of mankind. During "the few years recently past the world, through fiery experiences, has acquired a vast amount of knowledge; but to properly apply that knowledge is now the important question. There is a perfect standard of application and when that standard is known and followed the result is certain to be satisfying. It is the privilege and duty of every one who can do so to render aid to his fellow in the wise application of acquired knowledge and to aid him to increase knowledge and wisdom. Such aid, to accomplish a good result, should be rendered unselfishly. "The wise man will hear and increase in learning."
This magazine enters the field, therefore, with a mission which is peculiar and unique. It has no rivals because it has no competitors. Every one joining in a similar effort to do good will be welcomed by us.
Its policy is and shall be not to array the rich against the poor, nor the poor against the rich, the classes against the masses, nor the masses against the classes but it will seek to do good unto all mankind.
It is not published in the interest of any religious denomination, nor is it the advocate of any political party or organization. It is no respecter of persons because of race, color or condition of servitude.
Nor is this magazine published for pecuniary profit or gain to anyone. All the money realized from its publication above the operating expenses will be used for the further dissemination of such knowledge amongst the people as will be beneficial to them. It is backed by some of the best and ablest men in the world and shall be maintained as an educational medium for the purpose of teaching the true relationship between science, agriculture, labor and pure religion. Its publication is for the benefit of the people, advising them of perils and pointing them to a better and nobler life.
Its purpose is to explain in the light of Divine wisdom the true meaning of the great phenomena of the present day and to prove to thinking minds by evidence incontrovertible and convincing that the time of a greater blessing of mankind is now at hand. Like a voice in the wilderness of confusion, its mission is to announce the incoming of the Golden Age.
There are more sad hearts in the world to-day than at any time of its history. A devastating war has afflicted the nations until they are torn and bleeding to death. Accompanying the war came the great pestilential influenza, claiming double the number of victims that fell as a result of the war. In the past few years, millions have gone down into death and other millions bemoan the loss of their loved ones.
Everywhere the cost of living mounts higher and higher and conditions of real want and famine stare many people in the face. In practically all the trades of the world the laborers are on strike or threatening to strike and thereby stop the wheels of commerce. There is a general unrest everywhere.
The financiers are no less in perplexity. They have yielded somewhat to the demands of labor, only to be convinced in their own minds that further yielding would mean disaster; and the tension is becoming such that the industries of the land are threatening to close down, all of which would bring greater distress both to producer and consumer. The Chicago Herald and Examiner in its financial columns recently said:
"If, declare the corporation heads and their backers, walkouts in the Crane and Harvester works are rehearsed for more serious and extensive industrial interruptions; if the building workers prove to take their responsibility as lightly as their fellows in the Crane and Harvester shops; if the street railway employees are uncompromisingly insistent upon a seventy-seven per cent increase in the wage scale; then, say employers and their financial backers, let it come to an extreme issue. Financial men do not mince words. They state pointedly they will back employers to the limit; will permit every important industry in Chicago and the Middle West territory to be strike stricken rather than submit to an unreasonable wage or unjust condition. If it must come to a drastic condition between employer and employee, well and good; they, the representatives of capital declare, will not avoid the test; let the thing be settled now and definitely; they are ready to meet and combat it to a final conclusion is the assertion."
The nations are in distress politically, financially and socially. Daily problems are arising, the solving of which seems beyond the power of human ingenuity. Seeing all these things coming to pass before our very eyes, who can lightly pass over the words of the Great Master foretelling these times when there would be "upon earth distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring, men's hearts failing them for fear and for looking to the things coming upon the earth!"
These distressing times have come at the very climax of the development of inventive genius —at
the very time of the greatest increase of knowledge. And why? There is a reason, and that reason we must ascertain and govern ourselves accordingly. There is a wide diversity of knowledge, which, if properly applied, would result in great and beneficial wisdom to the people. What, then, is the real meaning of the present conditions, and is there a supreme remedy that will bring order out of chaos and establish a lasting peace, prosperity and happiness to the people? THE GOLDEN AGE enters the field for the very purpose of answering these questions and confidently expects to answer them to the satisfaction of all thinking minds.
THE GOLDEN AGE will carry into the homes of the people the desired message which will tend to restore calmness to the disturbed minds and comfort to the saddened hearts. We do not expect to accomplish this by human wisdom, because that has been tried and failed and such wisdom is foolishness in the sight of Jehovah. But we will point the people to the dear and indisputable evidence in the light of present-day events, disclosing the divinely expressed remedy for the reconstruction of human affairs that will bring the desire of all nations, assuring to the people life, liberty and happiness. We invite all order-loving, law-abiding, God-fearing persons to aid in passing this message of comfort on to those who desire to be comforted.
The troublesome times upon the earth have awakened the people to a realization that they have neglected Bible study and have not provided their children with sufficient teaching concerning the great truths in the Bible. Our Religious Department will carry in each issue a carefully arranged Bible study in such simple form that it can be readily understood by any one. This will enable the people to remain at home and quietly study their Bibles and increase in knowledge and in Divine wisdom. Every parent owes it as a duty to his child to see that the child is provided with proper Biblical instruction. THE GOLDEN AGE will supply this long-felt want.
LABOR AND ECONOMICS
THE "PLUMB PLAN"
THE "PLUMB PLAN" for solving the railroad problem is engaging the attention of the American people as few propositions have ever done. This plan, evolved by the railroad brotherhoods, is based upon the constantly rising cost of living to the consumer; the knowledge that the repeated increases in wages have brought no real benefit to the workers, but have greatly enriched the owners of capital; the conviction that further advances in wages at the expense of a cost of living exceeding that of the wage increase, are wholly futile; the knowledge that increase in the productive power of human effort should be reflected equally in increased wages and decreased cost of living, not increased cost of living; the knowledge that increased cost of transportation results in an increase in the cost of living while decreased cost of transportation results in reduced cost of living, and the assurance that the rights of all railroads are based entirely on grants which the public made to the present owners.
The remedy proposed is that private capital be eliminated from the railroads by requiring the private owners of railroad stocks and bonds to surrender their securities for Government bonds with a fixed interest return based upon the money actually invested, and that the roads be managed by corporations in which the public, the operating managements and labor shall be equally represented. One-half the net savings would go to the public by increasing service without adding costs or by reducing costs, the other half would be divided between the operators and the wage earners.
The railroads would be placed in control of a board selected one-third by the President, one-third by the operating officials and one-third by the employees; and are to divide any surplus between the nation and the employees, or to meet any deficit by taxation.
No matter how the railroads are operated, there are three partners in the industry, capital, labor and the public. It is a self-evident fact that until management is wholly efficient, the rate the public pays is excessive. It is labor's proposal to readjust the interests in the railroads to a new balance. It is labor's claim that skill is the prime force in the railroad industry; and that beyond giving to capital a reasonable return on the money honestly invested, the public owes it nothing.
Operating the roads as a unit, centralizing purchases and discontinuing competition wherever it is wasteful and unnecessary could hardly fail to result in great ultimate savings. And it is the public, in the end, that has to foot the bill, however the roads are operated. As to the government's operation of the railroads, this has not been such a total failure, as many would like to think. A large part of the apparent losses are due to decreased business since the war and greatly increased wages. The total wage bill of January, 1919, was 66 per cent higher than the corresponding figure for the last month of private operation.
Government operation without the active and willing cooperation of the employees tends toward stagnation and bureaucracy, and does not satisfy the legitimate aspirations of the railroad workers; hence there must be a considerable participation of employees and officers in railway management. As long as the brotherhoods are in opposition, with capital and Government against them, they will not feel the responsibility which they must feel if the interests of the public are to be preserved.
As a matter of fact, it has been a long time since the executive heads of the railroad companies were in control of the properties over which they presided. Railroad presidents have said repeatedly that it was becoming impossible to manage the railroads under a system -of Federal control plus the interference of forty-eight separate states. The rate-making power was lost long ago, and so was the control of wages. The roads were being held up by the Government on one hand and the employees on the other. And it has not always been true that the executive heads of the railroads have managed those properties in the interests of their stockholders. Sometimes they have managed them with an eye on the stock market, sometimes with a view of completing mergers in which the bankers were interested. Was not the New Haven wrecked by a man selected by a leading banker?
It is claimed that there are now 12,000,000 stock-holders of the railroads. Their holdings would not be disturbed by being exchanged for Government bonds. They would have a larger actual voice in the management of the railroad properties as voters of the United States Government than they ever had as stockholders. It is well known that the officials of the railroads have been selected by the bankers, and their selections have not always been good ones.
In financial circles there is much talk that the roads should be returned to the owners and that when they are returned there must be a dividend guaranteed by the United States treasury or else a marked increase in rates. But this is not a good time to increase rates.
As for the guarantee of dividends, if the Government is to guarantee the securities of private corporations it will not be long, and ought not to be, before complete and direct control over the affairs of those corporations is placed in the hands of the Government. Transportation by rail is a public business which the Government could as properly take under its control as the schools, highways, water supply, postal facilities, irrigation and fire protection already administered by it.
Under any system of private ownership it is and will always be a real problem to know what to do with the weak roads. Obviously, the best thing to do with them is to merge them with the systems they would most benefit, so that they might have the advantage of common terminals, through trains and such other advantages as come from unification.
It is believed that if the Plumb Plan is adopted the President's appointees to represent the public on the board of directors should be chosen much as the members of the Supreme Court are chosen — for life, or during good behavior. They should not be selected because of the prominent place they occupy in the councils and activities of the political party in power.
It is claimed by bankers that if private capital is to enter freely upon the venture of further developing the railroads, and if railroad credit is to be reestablished on a solid basis of genuine confidence, 6 per. cent. on the final valuation, plus a modest share in earnings in excess of this percentage, would constitute the minimum required. This, it is believed, it will be impossible to guarantee.
If the railroads under public regulation cannot finance themselves, and if the Government will not finance them as long as they are run for private profit, it necessarily follows that the Government must take over the ownership and ultimate control of the railroads. The plans for a partnership of capital and the Government do not work. They are out of date.. The railroad brotherhoods have learned that in an ultimate test of strength they have the power to enforce their demands upon both capital and Government. Compulsory arbitration is out of the question.
The railroad employees constitute a large part of the citizenship of the country, and they will be interested as citizens, will they not, in seeing that the railroads are efficiently managed? And how about the public?
If they are the actual owners and have to pay the interest on the bonds, won't they be as much interested as they are now?
Railroading is the only business that has every industry and every individual in the country for its client, and every person in the country ought to know the invaluable service the roads perform. The railroads comprise 275,000 miles of line, the average line being 95 miles long and employing about 7 men to the mile, or 1,800,000 in all, for the 2,905 lines. These lines carry the meat-calves born in Texas, fed in Oklahoma, fattened in Iowa, slaughtered in. Chicago and shipped in iced cars to your home town. They bring your cantaloupes from the Imperial Valley in California, your other melons from Colorado or Southern Indiana, your strawberries from Missouri or Mississippi, your oranges from Florida, California, Louisiana and Texas, your bananas from the seaboard; they bring you everything you eat or wear or use. Every year our railroads carry 650 tons for every man, woman and child in the land, which is about three times what the railroads of any other land carry.
Under the Plumb Plan the division of dividends is so arranged as to make it to the personal advantage of the operating employees to get their additional compensation in the form of dividends rather than increase of wages. It is hoped that this will provide an offset to an indolent policy on the part of the employees, who, instead of exerting more effort to create new business, could decide merely to raise wages, and so impose a selfish tax upon the public.
Some objections offered to the Plumb Plan are that labor itself promises nothing, but apparently anticipates relatively high wages as compared with other industries, and might use its voting strength in ways that would not be for the best interests of the rest of the country. It is feared that more attention would be devoted to increasing wages than to increasing efficiency and that many men would be retained in service who would not be able to make good under private operation. It is feared, too, that as new railroads would have to be built out of Government funds, there would be political rivalry among different sections for such new lines, and new "pork bills" that would put the notorious river and harbor appropriations far in the shade.
When the Prophet Nahum in his vision in chapter 2:3-6 foresaw the railroads with the locomotives running "like the lightning," "with flaming torches in the day of his preparation," he little imagined that these wonderful "chariots" were destined to become the property, not of kings, nor of the rich, but of the common people, like himself.
SOCIAL and INDUSTRIAL
THE POWER OF THE PRESS
IT may be true, as some claim, that if there were no crimes, scandals, riots, accidents, etc, there would be many less newspapers, but it would seem as if we could spare a few newspapers that now make a living entirely out of the garbage can. The influence of the press is remarkable. An indiscreet statement or an untrue statement at a critical time has not infrequently produced disastrous results. It has been claimed that the race riots in Washington and Chicago in July were largely due to two items, which we reproduce herewith.
On the morning of the worst day of the race riots in Washington, D. C, a Washington paper printed this on its first page:
"MOBILIZATION FOR TO-NIGHT "It was learned that a mobilization of every available service man stationed in or near Washington or on leave here has been ordered for to-morrow evening near the KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS hut on Pennsylvania Avenue between Seventh and Eighth Streets. The hour of assembly is 9 o'clock, and the purpose is a clean-up that will cause the events of the past two evenings to pale into insignificance. Whether official cognizance of this assemblage and its intent will bring about its forestalling cannot be told"
Two days before the riot in Chicago a Chicago paper said:
"Not only is Chicago a receiving-station and port of refuge for colored people who are anxious to be free from the jurisdiction of lynch law, but there has been built here a publicity or propaganda-machine that directs its appeals or carries on an agitation that every week reaches hundreds of thousands of people of the colored race in the Southern States. The State Street blocks south of Thirty-first Street are a 'newspaper row' with The Defender, The Search-Light, The Guide, The Advocate, The Whip, as weekly publications, and there are also illustrated monthly magazines such as The Half-Century and The Favorite."
In Washington an individual crime was made a race issue. Marines, soldiers and sailors took up the issue which had been suggested to them. Unoffending negroes were assaulted upon the streets and were even dragged from street cars for the purpose.
The trouble in Chicago a week later amounted to a small sized civil war. In one instance in the latter city a negro woman and the child in her arms were beaten to death by whites without provocation. Scores of other deaths resulted among both
blacks and whites as a result of the reign of terror.
During the war a large influx of negroes into Chicago overcrowded the negro section and negroes of means were being gradually forced out of it into outlying white sections. This caused a strained situation. The actual beginning in Chicago was in a clash among bathers at an amusement resort.
Negroes are intolerant of the indignities to which they were subjected before the war and claim with considerable force that having done their full share in making the world safe for democracy they are not to be deprived without protest of the liberties which they fought to enjoy.
The large packers of Chicago have announced that they will dismiss all negro employees, possibly hoping thus to effect the removal of some thousands of negroes back to the South, where they are needed for farm work and where they are more appreciated.
A newspaper is the smallest thing a man purchases, but it is like the tongue: "The tongue is a little member; the tongue is a fire, and setteth on fire the course of nature; behold how great a matter a little fire kindleth!" —James 3:5, 6.
FECUNDITY OF JAPANESE WOMEN
IT is part of the scheme of Japanese civilization for mothers to rent their daughters to foreigners or others as temporary wives, and there are brokers in Japan who make a business of supplying such wives, sometimes showing a dozen or more to the prospective purchaser before the final choice is made by signing a register and unmade by signing off.
Japanese bride-merchants in America do business entirely by photograph, and of course, according to American laws the brides thus selected by their future husbands become permanent additions to the family.
While with our Western ways of looking at things we may find fault with the Japanese women for the view they take of the marriage relation, we can not find fault with them for any failure to act as mothers. So many children are being born to the Japanese women of California as to cause some anxiety to the people of that state.
Ten years ago the number of children born of Japanese parents in California was 246. During the years 1918 this number had increased to 4,920 for
the one year and in one northern California county during that year there were 176 children born of Japanese parents and but 86 born of white parents. There are now more than 30,000 Japanese children in California who are native-born and possess all the rights of leasing and ownership held by white children. Statistics show that intermarriage between whites and Japanese is almost unknown. The children of such marriages are excluded from white society and they and their parents are compelled to live in the Japanese quarters. These conditions do not augur well for the amalgamation of the Japanese and white races.
Here we have a very literal fulfilment of the Lord's promised punishment of Mother Eve and her daughters: "Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception." —Genesis 3:16.
THE WOMAN SPELL-BINDER
AS THE PEOPLE draw near to the better age, a leveling process is observable. The worker seeks to act on the plane of the captain of industry, and to manage the business. The laity perceive that the gulf between them and the clergy is an illusion. The average citizen demands his share in the actual governing. The powerful and influential are correspondingly reduced. Mountains are trimmed down and valleys raised up.
Woman seeks her place by the side of man, and if possible a little above. Having secured the vote, she becomes a voter, and some of her enter politics. They say that in the older woman-suffrage states, the woman politicians are the equal of their male predecessors anywhere.
In the newer woman-voting commonwealths the evolution of the woman in politics is going on. The first stage is the zealot, enthusiastic, with a burning zeal for the uplift of womankind. She is developed into or is succeeded by the crafty self-seeker. The woman politician steps from the chrysalis; and finally the female grafter and corruptionist completes the cycle.
In many states the woman voter is at the zealot stage. The opportunity for doing good, of reforming, of correcting abuses, appeals to the best instincts of the high-minded. Consequently the door opens, and forthwith appears in the approaching political campaign the woman political speaker. It is the Republican oratress first. It remains to be seen whether she will equal her male predecessor, who from his soapbox so deftly threw a spell over his audience and bound them with his webs as to
earn the name of spell-binder. Surely here the spell of woman's magnetism should help the new orators-to-be to become the real thing.
Anyway, at the suggestion of Mrs. Medill McCormick, Chairman of the Woman's National Executive Republican Committee, schools of public speaking for women are to be the thing: for the women must be qualified as campaign speakers. Who knows but that the binding of the feminine spell might put into power the right parties, whoever they may be?
Woman's struggle to escape from economic, industrial, civic and social bondage is one of the interesting signs of the day. There is coming the day when woman will forever cease to be man's serf, bound to the home, but as a boon companion be with him in a mutual helpfulness which will mean much for the rise of the race to the place and power intended for all the people.
Throughout all the years of human history which precede the promised kingdom of God upon earth woman's position, Scripturally and historically, has been second to that of man. "The head of the woman is the man." (1 Corinthians 11:3) The fact that we see this headship now questioned is evidence that the long-promised kingdom is near. At its close the Scriptures show sex distinctions will have entirely vanished. "They that enter into the kingdom shall be as the angels." —Matt. 22:30.
NEGRO EDUCATION IN CINCINNATI
ONE of the most successful educational enterprises in the United States is the Douglass High School of Cincinnati. Blacks from all over the city go to this school by preference. They feel that they get the best chance by staying in their own crowd, and they are probably right. In the main entrance of the Douglass School are four placards reading: "Self-Control, Self-Reliance, Self-Respect, Race Pride." The teachers are of high-class, and largely drawn from the South. The school has every feature calculated to make it an attractive rendezvous for colored boys and girls until the closing hour, which is 9.00 P. M. Its play rooms, libraries, medical attention, open-air rooms for tuberculous children, special classes for defectives, and courses in manual training and domestic science, all have proven that the best way to deal with the colored boy or girl to make for contentment and order is to give them a chance, and to give them that chance by themselves.
While it is true that "of one blood God hath made all nations of men," nevertheless under present imperfect conditions a wise segregation is probably an advantage to all concerned.
MANUFACTURING and MINING
MAKING THE WORKER A PARTNER
DISCUSSION proceeds widely as to the best way to meet the increasingly insistent demand of the worker that he be permitted to have a voice in the management of the business. All employers now know that they mast deal with their employees by collective bargaining and it would seem the part of wisdom for them to spend some time now in considering how they can make the best solution of the new situation which is bound to arise when the employee demands a voice in the management.
It is a curious thing that while the average man will admit that he knows nothing about most subjects he has never studied, such as music, geology, botany, astronomy, etc., he is fully convinced of his ability to govern or help to govern business or political institutions of any kind without ever having studied the subject or without having ever had the least experience. This makes the coming business partner a liability for a time until he has learned something of his new duties, but not as much of a liability, perhaps, as some people would like to think.
It not infrequently happens that a night watchman or railroad conductor or other unskilled or semi-skilled worker is thoroughly successful in controlling the politics of a ward, the operations of a lodge or the conduct of a labor organization. They control such affairs because they know men and how to deal with them. While, therefore, a great many mistakes will be made in the transfer of a certain amount of power to the workers in an industrial organization, nevertheless it is highly probable that the manufacturer will discover qualities of leadership where he has not been accustomed to look for them, and where they will be of value in the business.
When a suspicion exists between a manufacturer and customer, as a result of a supposed injustice or grievance, the man who is called upon to settle that grievance and remove the injustice is a man who has made a study of human nature, and at the same time is capable of seeing both sides of a problem. Such men are to be found in the marketing end of a business, either in the sales or advertising departments.
The laborer is just as necessary to the manufac-
turer as the customer. His opinions exercise a considerable influence in labor ranks and his vote counts for just as much as the president of his company. The suspicion in which he holds his employer maybe and probably is many times deeper than that of any customer and may affect the efficiency of his work and his whole attitude toward the business. This suspicion must be cleared away not by a mere statement of intent but by interesting and truthful statements regarding the necessities of the company, its policies and what it hopes to do. It would seem, therefore, that the marketing end of a business is the end best fitted with this new problem which is here and here to stay. The best thing to do with a pressing problem is to solve it and not try to dodge it or postpone it, especially if it is a problem that will not be dodged or postponed.
"A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels." (Proverbs 1:5). This is as good advice to the managers of labor to-day as it was thousands of years ago, when it was written.
HOW LONG WILL THE OIL LAST!
THE production of petroleum in the United States has averaged about 950,000 barrels per day for the past year and a half, with a consumption somewhat in excess of production. From January, 1918, to January, 1919, the stock on hand decreased from 150,000,000 barrels to 128;000,000 barrels, but had risen to 132,165,000 barrels by the end of May, 1919.
When the Standard Oil Company begins to sell oil stock in the open market it is a pretty good sign that those on the inside see the beginning of the end and are trying to place their money where it will be safer.
There are several distinct oil fields in the United States: the upper reaches of the Ohio River, Northwestern Ohio, Southeastern Illinois, Northeastern Oklahoma, North Texas, Northwestern Louisiana, Southeastern Texas, Southern California and Wyoming. Some of these fields are now 85% exhausted.
The average investor in oil stocks, especially in new companies, never seems to know that most wells decline in production very rapidly, which makes necessary constant drilling to maintain production. The average decline of flowing wells in some fields
approximate 15% a month. Pools in Oklahoma which three years ago provided 500,000 barrels per day now produce only 30,000 barrels and on one property where at that time thirteen wells were producing 13,000 barrels of oil per day one hundred wells are now producing only one tenth as much.
The Bureau of Mines of the Federal Government stated recently, in effect, that the country is now facing a serious shortage of petroleum. While this country has produced 57% of the world's supply of petroleum it has done so by a depletion of the national reserve supply.
Oil wells, like mining properties, are obviously self-liquidating. Every barrel of oil or pound of metal removed correspondingly reduces the amount recoverable and consequently reduces the value of the property. Hence, the absolute necessity of oil producers being continually on the lookout for new sources of supply to serve as a production supply against their declining wells.
Few, if any, producing companies ever show on their balance sheets any reserve for oil depletion. It frequently happens that a new company will begin to pay dividends prematurely, with the result that it soon requires more capital with which to continue operations. It is generally unwise to purchase stock in companies which pay immediate dividends.
All of the oil companies —the most prosperous as well as the most wheezy —would be glad if they could find some way of maintaining a permanent supply of oil, such as was miraculously provided for -the widow by the old Hebrew Prophet Elisha. The story is brief and very interesting:
"Now there cried a certain woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets unto Elisha, saying. Thy servant my husband is dead; and thou knowest that thy servant did fear the Lord: and the creditor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen. And Elisha said unto her, What shall I do for thee ? tell me: what hast thou in the house? And she said. Thine handmaid hath not anything in the house, save a pot of oil. Then he said, Go, borrow thee vessels abroad of all thy neighbors, even empty vessels; borrow not a few. And when thou art come in thou shalt shut the door upon thee and upon thy sons, and shalt pour out into all those vessels, and thou shalt set aside that which is full So she went from him, and shut the door upon her and upon her sons, who brought the vessels to her; and she poured out And it came to pass, when the vessels were full, that she said unto her son, Bring me yet a vessel: and he said unto her, There is not a vessel more. And the oil stayed. Then she came and told the man of God: and he said. Go, sell the oil, and pay thy debt, and live thou and thy children of the rest." —2 Kings 4:1-7.
THE PHOSPHATE MINES OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA produces about 52 per cent. of the entire world's supply of phosphate and about 82 per cent. of the supply of the United States. These phosphate beds, underlying almost the entire state, are one of the great reasons for the productivity of Florida soil. The greatest and richest beds of phosphate are in the vicinity of Tampa, which has the distinction of being the largest shipper of phosphate rock in the world.
The phosphorous employed in the manufacture of matches and for medicinal purposes is obtained from phosphate rock by mixing it with coke and sand and heating it in an electric furnace. It is marketed in the form of sticks, which are made by conducting the phosphorus from the melting pot through a pipe surrounded by cold water. The phosphorus solidifies in the pipe and can be removed as a continuous rod. The phosphorus sticks are packed in jars covered with water, to avoid spontaneous combustion.
Acid phosphate, for years one of our most popular soft drinks, could not be manufactured or sold at the soda counter, if it were not for the output of the Florida mines. Owing to its remarkable influence on the growth of bone in young animals, it has been used in the treatment of bone affections. It is also most effective in pulmonary troubles and skin diseases and as a nerve tonic.
It has been well known for many years that a trace of phosphorus in the manufacture of bronze adds greatly to the tenacity of the metal and to its value. It is an essential of calcium phosphide used for distress signals at sea and was widely employed during the Great War in the manufacture of smoke screens for hiding vessels from submarines.
Phosphate mines, strictly speaking, are not mines at all, but merely open pits. The deposits are of all sizes and shapes, hard-rock, soft-rock and pebbles, and frequently occur in pockets of limestone, from which they are scooped with the naked hand. The work is all done by negro labor, principally with pick and shovel, but sometimes by dredges or other hydraulic apparatus. After mining it requires to be washed, dried, pulverized and sacked.
The human family needs these phosphate deposits at the present time for food and medicinal purposes, and it strikes us that a fatherly Being who had the foresight and beneficence to lay up stores of food and medicine for an uncreated race is a God the human family can trust, and a God they will love when they know him. "And God saw everything that he had made, and behold it was very good." — Genesis 1:31.
FINANCE, COMMERCE and TRANSPORTATION
AMERICAN EXPORTS AND INFLATION
IN the end Europe must pay for our goods in their own goods or in gold. Meantime we can and should lend them all of our savings that we can spare, but if we go further and inflate our credit position in order to lend them more we cannot fail to cause a further rise in the cost of living. The proposition to accept European notes, backed by European mortgages, in payment for American goods, is all right, but not if those notes are to be used as a basis for the further inflation of our currency. The temporary and illusory gain that would follow such an inflation would be more than offset by the unrest of labor and all the other evils which accompany inflation.
It was in August, 1915, that the quantity of money in the United States began its rapid increase. One month later prices began to shoot upward, keeping almost exact pace with the quantity of money. In February, 1916, money suddenly stopped increasing, and two or three months later prices stopped likewise. The money in circulation in the United States rose from three and one-third billions in 1913 to five and a half billions in 1918, corresponding to the rise in prices.
The money in circulation in the world outside of Russia increased during the war from fifteen billions to forty-five billions and the bank deposits in fifteen principal countries from twenty-seven billions to seventy-five billions. Prices have trebled also.
The main cause for the present extension in bank credit is the Liberty Loan. Subscribers for the loans have not paid their bonds in full. These bonds are unrivalled security for borrowings and will continue to be so until the Government which issues them redeems them. Until they are paid there la little chance that prices will fall materially from their present high level. Prices in Europe since the war began have risen more than they have in the United States, and for the same reason —too much money. In Russia the Bolsheviki have issued eighty billion dollars of paper money, or more than all the rest of the world put together.
The poor world is suffering from something that only a few individuals experience —too much money. They are finding out that money "maketh not rich," without corresponding increase in the things that
money will buy. So vast is the seeming inflation of business that business men everywhere are enlarging their businesses, like the man in the parable whose ground "brought forth plentifully: and he thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my fruits, and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years." —Luke 12:18-20.
SUNSHINY DAYS FOR BIG BANKERS
THE only man in the world with a full bank account is the American, and he will have plenty of foreign friends as long as he has money to lend.
Representatives of many foreign governments and municipalities have been rushing to America to secure great loans here. Some of the amounts are:
|The Swiss Republic, ||$30.000,000 |
|Finland, ||Several millions|
|Poland, ||Several millions|
|Argentina, ||Several millions|
|Brazil, ||Several millions|
|Germany, ||A large loan|
|France, ||An important bond issue|
In addition, the most powerful financial syndicate ever formed in this country, if not in the world, will undertake to loan from one to five billion dollars in credits to thousands of foreign buyers with which in turn to purchase American foodstuffs, raw materials and other supplies.
As much of these vast sums will never leave the country but be expended here for American products, a great circulation of money will result and a large volume of business will be done by American concerns, linked up with the international financiers. There will be plenty of work until these amounts are spent, and at good wages, for American labor will not permit its net return for a day's work to decrease, whatever figures the cost of living may reach.
The time is coming, of course, when Europe will
have placed all the orders needed to reestablish her shattered industries, and also be able to ship goods into the American market; and then a reaction may be expected in America, with the usual phenomena of less work, lower wages and falling prices. But for a time this country is safe from the difficulties incident to business depression.
The time is coming, however, when a perplexing situation must be met; for borrowings have the unfortunate faculty of the limitation imposed by the ability of the borrower paying interest. But it looks as though America was safe for another year of good times.
RESTORATION OF OUR MERCHANT MARINE
THERE has been no American merchant marine worth while since Commodore Vanderbilt sold his line of trans-Atlantic steamers to his English competitors. The necessity of building ships to transport our soldiers to France has again placed a great fleet of merchant ship's under the American flag. The Shipping Board has announced the opening of 62 regular cargo liner services, twenty-five of which start from New York. They cover South America, Africa, the Pacific, Italy, France, the North Sea states and England. Besides this it has been announced that over $200,000,000 worth of merchant ships have been ordered, which indicates that the magnificent ship-building facilities put up during the war for military needs will not be allowed to go to ruin.
The plan of sale announced for Government ships is very generous. It allows the purchaser to charter for three years, paying from his profits. At the end of the three years he has the option of buying the ships outright at $110 a ton or returning them to the Board.
It is not clear just how the American buyers of American ships expect to make money out of the purchases, because it is quite well known that American-operated ships are the most expensive to run in the world, and often fail in competition on equal terms with the shipping of other nations.
IMMENSE EXPORTS OF AMERICAN FOODSTUFF
IN 1918 the quantity of fresh beef exported was 540,000,000 pounds, or 86 times as much as in 1914. The quantity of bacon exported was 1,000, 000,000 pounds, or five times the amount exported in 1913. The amount of condensed milk was 553, 000,000 pounds or 26 times as much as in 1913. Of this amount 25,000,000 pounds went to India or four times as much as was shipped to India the previous
year. Taking all kinds of foodstuffs into consideration the United States is now exporting four times as much as before the war. The money value is six times as great. It is now estimated at $3,000,000,000 per year while then it was $500,000,000 per year.
Many a man is deceived by such figures into thinking that it represents the increasing wealth of the country, whereas it represents the opposite. Every ton of raw material taken out of the land impoverishes the real wealth by that much. It seems all right to the thoughtless, but it is like what the Bible speaks of when it says, "There is a way that seemeth good to a man, but the end thereof is destruction." A country which enlarges its exports by sending away its actual wealth would come to nothing if the process were continued long enough.
THE DEMAND FOR AUTOMOBILES
OWING to the unprecedented prosperity of the farmers, the demand for automobiles is now estimated at 60 per cent. ahead of the supply; and orders, both by dealers and the consuming public, are being booked for months ahead. The growth in popularity of the motor car is shown by the registration figures for the year of 5,500,000, over a million cars better than the best previous figures. In California there is one automobile in use for every seven adults in the state.
No family purchases an automobile without the families next door desiring also to fulfil the ancient Bible prophecy to the effect that "many shall run to and fro" (Daniel 12:4). In order to fulfil this divine prediction, men that are wholly unable to afford it mortgage their houses and sell everything they have, as though an automobile were a "pearl of great price." All over the country the American people are beating their chicken houses into garages.
TANK CARS FOR TRANSPORTATION
MORE than 100 commodities are now transported in tank cars. Kerosene, gasoline, sulphuric, muritic, nitric and picric acids, ammonia, alcohol, benzol, ether, coal-tar, chlorine for bleaching, tannic acid for tanning, turpentine and rosin for paints, vegetable oils for soaps and butterine, linseed oil for paint makers, soya bean oil, castor bean oil, peanut oil, cocoanut oil, olive oil, corn oil, whale and fish oils, fats and oil from the meat packers, asphalt for roofing and roads, caustic soda for soap, silicate of soda and potash for soaps and fertilizers, molasses, glucose, vinegar, pickles, skimmed milk and wine are all shipped in tank cars of large capacity.
POLITICAL, DOMESTIC and FOREIGN
TO HASTEN THE COMING OF DEMOCRACY
THE NATIONAL SOCIAL UNIT ORGANIZATION is the name of a corporation whose inception was recently approved by Supreme Court Justice Lydon of New York. The charter purpose is to "hasten the coming of a democracy, both genuine and efficient, by building upon a basis of population units an organization through which the people can get a clear idea of their common needs, and can utilize the technical knowledge of skilled groups in formulating and carrying out programs to meet these needs."
A similar social unit system in Cincinnati is reported to have successfully developed a quite genuine democracy in small groups of the population, who by the unfavorable conditions of tenement city life had been unable to "find themselves" sociologically. The groups by a direct process of practical education in the social and economic needs of the people cultivated in a mixed population a spirit of independence quite comparable to that which has been the pride of American tradition. Incidentally the social unit incurred the cordial opposition of the local politicians who found their grip increasingly impaired as the knowledge of their former subjects grew.
Knowledge is power. It is independence. It is the foundation of true democracy, which in essence is the actual direction of the people's affairs by the people themselves.
The time for general enlightenment on all topics is not merely coming —it is here. The chains of ignorance and superstition are about to be forever broken. The common people are about to enter into a greater and greater freedom which will soon — and to the people, unexpectedly —blossom out into that which Paul promised, when he foresaw the better age just now ahead, and said: "The creation [all created beings] itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption [the chains of ignorance, superstition, disease and ultimately death] into the glorious liberty of the [perfect earthly] children of God."
The coming of that which has not yet come — genuine democracy —is just around the future's corner. It draws very near. All humanity will soon go forth to meet it, but it will not come through any of the well-meant plans which are now
being experimented with. Certainly no one could have any better purpose than the backers of the social unit system, but they are dealing with a situation too complicated for them to save it The world will be saved for democracy, but it will be* through the agency of the coming kingdom of Messiah.
FREEDOM EXISTS WHERE WEAK ARE FREE
THE degree of civilization of a community may be measured by the liberty accorded to the weaker members of the community. Where the defenceless are defended and the individually weak are backed up by the power of all, liberty exists in tangible form.
Those classes which are without a voice and without a vote are most likely to be imposed upon by the strong and unscrupulous. One such class consists of those who under the law are classified as infants and minors. It is a promising sign when the rights of such classes are defended as in a recent instance in an Eastern city.
A boy is not supposed to exercise any particular legal rights, but when a property owner in Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., chased nine-year-old Roland White so that the boy fell down and hurt himself, because the lad was scooting past the house on a pushmobile, it was apparent that in Dobbs Ferry at least a boy has some rights.
The man had asked the children why they could not scoot on the other side of the street; his wife was nervous and the noise annoyed her. One of the neighbors was not surprised that the boy might have suffered from the kind of pain that gains plaintiffs substantial amounts from damage suits, for she said that when the man was chasing the boy he had such a terrible look on his face that it frightened even her; but the magistrate merely imposed a sentence and then mercifully suspended it. He made it plain that the majesty of the law protected even boys on scooters, because "there is no law that prevents boys from scooting or roller-skating on the side-walks," and that "a man must remember that he was a boy once himself."
If judges and big people generally remembered that they like to have liberty themselves, and would allow others the same liberties they insist on, and if they would protect and help and be a big brother
to those less able to look out for themselves, civilization would take a step upward and there would be real liberty for grown-ups as well as for children.
In the Golden Age, which is fast approaching, the rights of every person will be safeguarded, even those of little boys and girls. "I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir" (Isaiah 13:12). The people are promised a better time than they have ever even dreamed of, as evidenced by these words: "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him" (1 Corinthians 2:9); and liberty for the weakest, even the boys and the girls, will characterize the greatness and majesty of the coming better order of things.
JEWISH PERSECUTION IN POLAND
UNDER the charge that all Jews are Bolsheviki the ruling party in Poland is engaged in a shameless persecution of Jews, with a view to making their political hold on the country stronger. Ugly illustrated posters, depicting the Jew as a serpent or vampire, appear in the newspapers and are doing everything possible to fan the fanaticism of the ignorant masses into a brutal massacre.
The Jews are blamed for the high cost of living, despite the fact that this phenomenon is world wide and has been caused by the fiscal policies of the warring countries.
As high as eighty Jews have been killed in a single pogrom in Poland, and they are of frequent occurrence; sometimes whole streets of Jewish homes are burned down, accompanied by brutalities in which the Roman Catholic Polish Christians seem to equal the Turks in their attacks against the Armenians.
Some of the factories in Poland belong to Jews, but in them no Jewish operatives can be employed, despite the fact that one-third of the populace are Jews. Polish workmen will not work with Jews and they can only work in small home industries of their own. They can not enter the civil service.
The Poles, politically and culturally a backward people, have won the power to make their land a hell for its three million Jews by no merit of their own, but simply by the victory of the Germans over the Russian and of the Allies over the Germans.
The Poles understand well what their role in Europe is. Their role is to keep a strong conscript army on the Vistula, while the French keep watch on the Rhine. They know very well if they fill this role, they may treat Jews, Germans and other minorities as they please.
That the Jews would have a very hard time for many centuries was not unknown to the Jewish prophets. And even these pogroms were foretold; for the Prophet Jeremiah says: "I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain [kingdom], and from every hill [lesser nation], and out of the holes (protected places) of the rocks [strongholds of society]." (Jeremiah 16:16.) This dreadful hunting of the Jews, however, is prelude to the regathering of as many of them as desire back to their home country. The Messianic kingdom will come after enough of the Jews are reestablished, and through them will flow the greatest benefit to all the people of the whole world.
DO MORE BALKANS MEAN MORE TROUBLE?
THE break-up of the Austrian empire has created four new Balkan-states, Hungary, Jugo-Slavia, Czecho-Slovakia and Poland, besides old Austria.
The civilization of the world broke down because the Great Powers played the Balkan states against each other for their own purposes. The Russian Empire and the plans of Germany for a Mittel-Europa collided. Now the whole of Central Europe has been Balkanized. From the Baltic to the Aegean the whole territory is now filled with small, ambitious, indefinitely bounded states. Will they keep the peace? Will their larger and more ambitious neighbors help them to keep the peace, or will they, in pursuance of their own ambitious designs, contrive to keep these small states quarreling among themselves in the hope of themselves profiting by the melee?
Europe must get to work. Will she get to work better with a large number of petty states or a small number of large states? Are customs barriers a help to commerce or a hindrance? If there are many boundaries to cross will trade be facilitated or hindered? If Europe does not get to work boundaries or no boundaries, what will happen?
Practically all the people of Europe, at least an overwhelming majority, profess obedience to the commands of Jesus Christ, but evidently they have two things more to learn. One of them is suggested by Paul, that "if any would not work, neither should he eat" (2 Thessalonians 3:10); for unless Europe gets to work she will not have enough to eat except by borrowing money from the United States and paying for food with the same money. The other thing that these Christians require is to realize that there is no permanent relationship possible among them except that based upon this ancient principle: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself."
AGRICULTURE and HUSBANDRY
WHAT ROTATION OF CROPS ACCOMPLISHES
IT HAD probably been discovered elsewhere by other farmers that corn always does well when it follows a crop of clover, but it was discovered anew in a section of North Carolina by a young farmer who purchased an abandoned farm and who noticed that his first crop of corn did best in a part of the field that had grown up to wild clover. The next spring he seeded all his wheat in clover and has been doing it ever since. His farm is now one of the show-places of the state. Other farmers in the neighborhood have followed his example and from a poor farming country have built up the best Corn-Belt in that part of the South.
Many years ago a great potato-producing industry developed in Aroostook County, Maine. The potatoes were grown in rotation with oats and clover; two years of potatoes, one of oats and one of clover, with as heavy an application of fertiliser as the potatoes would pay for. Wonderful results were obtained by this rotation and enrichment of the soil, and now it has been discovered that this same rotation, with equally good results, can be obtained in any potato-growing country.
In the so-called Black Belt of Alabama and Mississippi many lands had been cropped to cotton without change or rest for a hundred years. The yield of cotton had fallen so low as to make the land practically worthless until somebody discovered that it was naturally adapted to alfalfa. Now it is producing great crops of alfalfa, three or four tons to the acre, and after a few years produces corn rivalling the yield in the Corn-Belt states.
Twenty years ago the sand-hill country of North Carolina was regarded as worthless. Fifty cents an acre was a good average for the land. The soil is little but sand for 20 feet or more down. A hotel-keeper undertook to raise vegetables for his table. He found that cowpeas and fertilizer worked a revolution in the soil. After turning under a few crops of pea vines he was able to produce 60 to 70 bushels of corn per acre. The system spread gradually until now the sand-hill region is one of the most prosperous in the state. Now land is selling at $200 to $250 per acre and the yield of cotton runs to a bale or more per acre.
By these and similar methods the Lord will sure-
ly fulfil his promise, "Behold, I make all things new" (Revelation 21:5). The earth is being made new before our very eyes and the land is yielding its increase.
DYNAMITING THE EARTH INTO A PARADISE
THE USE OF ELECTRICITY and dynamite in the Great War has developed methods for dealing with rocks, stumps and water courses which will alter the face of the earth. In digging ditches the holes are drilled two feet apart and two feet deep, the number of rows depending upon the width desired for the bed of the stream. As soon as about 10 holes are drilled and loaded they are exploded by electricity. The blast lifts the soil 200 feet in the air and scatters it out over the adjoining land for a distance of 150 feet, leaving a clean ditch. If a deeper bed is desired the first bed of the stream can be blasted out by another layer of holes, or a third.
One of the principal uses of dynamite in clearing up large areas is that of blasting out stumps. Three holes are drilled on opposite sides of the stump, all slanting in toward the center, and reaching down to the subsoil beneath the stump. Crow-bars are generally used for making the holes, but portable electric and compressed air drills are also used.
Another great use of dynamite is in clearing land of boulders. This is done by three methods, mud-capping, which consists in removing the dynamite from the shell and packing it in a compact conical heap on the boulder, and then covering it with several inches of thick heavy mud; blockholing, which consists of drilling a hole into the boulder and charging it with a small amount of dynamite; and snake-holing, which consists in rolling the boulder out of its bed by placing a hole under it similar to one of the holes used to remove a stump. If a sufficient charge of dynamite is used the boulder will be broken into fragments. Boulders should always be snakeholed before attempts at mudcapping or block-holing are made. The mud used for mudcapping must be free from stones. If stones are present in the mud they will be thrown like bullets. Block-holing requires more labor but is the simplest method for breaking very hard boulders, and the only method for breaking boulders over 3 feet in diameter. It requires much less dynamite than either snakeholing or mudcapping.
Who should have supposed when the Prophet said, "The desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose" (Isaiah 35:1), that one of the instruments the Lord will use for accomplishing the fulfilment of that prophecy is a force (dynamite) which has been largely used by man for the slaughter of men?
CONSERVATION OF SOIL FERTILITY
THE VERY FOUNDATION of soil fertility and soil conservation is carbonate of lime. Carbonate of lime in the soil takes out its acid humors and toxic poisons and brings in useful bacteria. It brings clover and alfalfa and brings nitrogen out of the air. Sowing it abroad over the fields makes a vast difference in the fertility and permanence of the soil. When a million tons a year of carbonate of lime are used along the Atlantic seaboard that part of the United States will turn into a veritable Garden of Eden.
Every great and enduring civilization in the world has grown up on a soil that was alkaline with lime, not acid. Babylon, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, Italy and France are all lands rich in carbonate of lime. The great west beyond the Missouri river has often as much as four per cent. of carbonate of lime.
The primary cause of decay in farming along the Atlantic seaboard is the fact that the soils are deficient in carbonate of lime. On that one fact, so long forgotten or never learned, rests all the discouragement and decay that is found from Florida to Nova Scotia. The eastern farmer has one of the best climates and the very best markets in the world. The only difficulty is that the land is lime-hungry. A land hungry for lime is insatiable. Manures will not remain in it, phosphorus unites with silica, iron, or alumina and becomes unavailable; the soil becomes acid, useful bacteria won't grow in it, nor the clovers nor alfalfa.
There are vast stores of carbonate of lime all along the foothills bordering on the Atlantic coastal plain, unnumbered millions of tons are ready for the farmer's use. Machinery is ready, capital is ready, and the railways. All that is needed is education.
Here in the east is the population, here are the homes, farms, schools, roads, villages and the impoverished, half-abandoned fields lying within driving distance of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington and New York. All, that is needed is to educate the farmer to understand that he must have carbonate of lime on his soil and a prosperity will follow that will amaze those who have grown to maturity in the belief that the one-time fertility can never be restored. How true it is that the "people perish for lack of knowledge"! —Hosea 4 :6.
TURNING FLORIDA'S SWAMPS INTO FARMS
LAKE OKECHOBEE, the second largest lake wholly within the United States, lies in the center of the everglades of Florida, with its surface thirty feet above the sea. The discovery of this fact made possible a vast reclamation work now under way, by which a very large part of what was once supposed to be waste land is finding purchasers who see for it a great future.
Four canals have been completed from Lake Okechobee to the sea, and a fifth is under way. Four of these are to the Atlantic Ocean and one to the Gulf of Mexico. Supplementing these there is also to be a canal 200 feet wide and 12 feet deep, fitted with locks, which will be suitable for navigation, and can be used to control the water levels in the other canals and hence in the whole district.
The drained lands are already producing large crops without the use of fertilizers of any kind and a town of 2,000 inhabitants, Moore Haven, is now standing at the junction of Lake Okechobee with the canal leading to the Gulf where but two years ago all was covered with water. There is no question but that this country will shortly be producing great quantities of sugar, for which it seems eminently fitted. It also has great possibilities for a great variety of other crops, including cattle raising. The country is level and free from large timber, and tractors can be used in clearing it and working it.
Branches of the Florida East Coast Line and Atlantic Coast Line have been built to points on the lake and other lines are projected. The area in process of reclamation is larger than the combined states of Rhode Island and Connecticut.
One of the commissions to man at the time of his creation by the Almighty was to subdue the earth. (Genesis 1:3.) Which is the nobler work for man? subduing the earth and drawing from it its bounties for the blessing of his fellow men? or subduing and exploiting his fellow men?
HAULING MILK WITH TRUCKS
FARMERS a few years ago got up at unearthly hours of the night to get their milk to market, and even then sometimes get the lacteal fluid in too late for the babies. Hauls of ten to thirty miles were too much for horses, but to-day the farmer gets up early, but at a reasonable hour, and with an auto truck gets the milk in from long distances and on time. Truck transportation tends to stabilize the quantity and to increase it by making a sure market for all the milk the farmer can bring.
SCIENCE and INVENTION
THE FUTURE OF WIRELESS
THE FUTURE OF WIRELESS lies in part in its use in the direction of aviation, for it is obvious that there is no other way in which aviators can be apprised of their own whereabouts in fog or darkness. With this idea in view a new transmitter has been devised which will project into the air beams of wireless somewhat like the searchlight but without the light, capable of expanding or contracting in area covered. Through the aid of these beams it is hoped that some day the flying aeronaut in time of fog can be guided from one part of the country to another.
Arrangements are now in effect by which navigators at the Brooklyn Navy Yard are enabled to give bearings to ships lost in the fog off the Atlantic Coast. The vessels wire when they want assistance and then, with the aid of several stations; the office fixes the ships' locations and they can proceed without waiting for clear weather.
It does not appear that it will ever be any too safe to fly rapidly or fly at all in a fog. In Canada an aviator went head on into a barn in a fog killing him instantly and completely wrecking his machine. How many have been killed by running into trees and other obstructions in fogs will probably never be known. But the wireless will at least help to make it safer.
There are wireless instruments now available which provide for taking bearings under any weather conditions. When signals are heard strongest in the operator's head telephone a movable pointer indicates the direction of the incoming signal. The geographical direction is then secured by a glance at the compass. Therefore, if signals can be heard from two wireless stations offering a wide angle the aircraft operator has merely to make a simple triangulation to get his exact bearings. The densest fog is no obstacle to the receipt of these signals.
In the course of normal development it is to be expected that very soon wireless telephone conversation will be held between aircraft and ships at sea. It then becomes a simple matter for the aviator lost in the fog to get his exact position almost instantly by this method.
It is said that in Captain Alcock's remarkable flight across the Atlantic direction-finding coils were built into the wings of his machine, so that when
the machine was pointed toward the great wireless station at Clifden, Ireland, the machine continually recorded the fact. When the machine veered to the right or left the signals immediately ceased recording on the receiving apparatus. This was so simple that the pilot did not need to understand the signals being sent out. As long as he could hear the signals in his telephone head-gear he knew he was heading directly toward the wireless station where he subsequently landed. The Clifden station is in constant communication with the wireless station at Glace Bay, Canada, so that Captain Alcock was able to hear the station throughout his voyage and keep his machine pointed toward it, thus overcoming the effect of the side drift caused by the winds.
As the aviator, apparently lost in a trackless sea of fog, may know whither he is bound, to the child of God, in a world that is filled with darkness and confusion, may know that he is guided by the eye of him that never sleeps. "I will guide thee with mine eye." —Psalms 32:8.
COMETS — THE TRAMPS OF THE HEAVENS
COMETS, along with shooting stars and meteors, are the tramps of the heavens. They are supposed to consist of gases which escaped being swept up by the planets and moons of the solar system at the time the system was formed by the separation of these planets from the sun. Their orbits are very irregular and are inclined at all angles to each other, whereas the orbits of all the planets lie very nearly in the same plane. The planets revolve from west to east around the sun, while comets not infrequently back around the sun in the opposite direction, from east to west The orbits of the planets are almost perfect circles, while the orbits of the comets are ellipses.
All the comets which visit our sun are supposed to belong to our solar system, although the visits of some of them about the sun are separated by hundreds of thousands of years. Donati's comet has a known orbit of more than two thousand years, and its aphelion (point in its orbit farthest away from the sun) is five times more distant than the orbit of the planet Neptune. Halley's comet has an orbit of seventy-five years, and Encke's comet of three and a third years.
Stars shine undimmed in lustre even through the heads of comets. The earth has on a number of occasions passed directly through the tails of comets with-
out experiencing the least visible effects. If it should encounter a comet head-on it is, doubtful if it would experience anything more serious than a shower of meteors.
A great many comets have been swerved from their original orbits by coming in dose proximity to the larger planets. About forty have been thus captured by Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, although Jupiter possesses the lion's share. They have been captured in the sense that their aphelia are now in the vicinity of these planets, and this fact has suggested the thought that each of the comets has its aphelia near some planet, the farthest aphelia being about planets that are so remote from our sun that they can not be seen by the most powerful telescope.
The most interesting feature of a comet is its tail, which develops and increases in brilliancy as the comet approaches the sun. The tail is always turned away from the sun, so that while the comet rushes around the sun the tail gradually changes place from being behind the comet to being in front of it. Hydrogen tails are long and straight, hydrocarbon tails are long and curved. Tails of iron or other metallic vapors are short and bushy. At times the same comet will have two or more tails of different types. Comets are continually disintegrating. Sometimes they come too close to the sun at their perihelion passage and become split into two or more comets, each with its own tail. Sometimes the tails become twisted or brushed aside as if they had encountered some unknown force. Sometimes they disintegrate entirely into periodic swarms of meteors. It is supposed that the great star shower in 1833 was caused by the passage of the earth through the nucleus of what had once been a great comet.
Comets travel at a leisurely speed through the frigid outer regions of the solar system. This speed is gradually accelerated as the comet draws nearer and nearer the sun, until it has acquired, near the time of its perihelion passage, a velocity that occasionally exceeds two hundred and fifty miles a second.
In one respect comets bear a close resemblance to the "wandering stars to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever," of Jude 13, in that both amount to as nearly nothing as anything possibly can.
THE MANUFACTURE OF LIGHTNING
THUNDERCLOUD is the most stupendous and powerful generator of electricity of which we know. A single lightning flash may carry twenty thousand amperes at a pressure of millions of volts. During the war lightning and thunder-storms proved a serious
menace to balloonists and aviators, and on this account they were made the subject of special study.
Thunderclouds are columns of heated air which have risen from the earth's surface, due to the heating effects of the sun, and have carried moisture up with them. This moisture does not condense in the form of drops until it comes in contact with dust particles or electrically charged particles which act as centers of condensation. The water condenses much more quickly about particles charged with negative electricity than with particles charged with positive electricity. The negatively charged drops being smaller and lighter are carried to the top of the cloud, very often forming a heavy negative charge, while the heavier positively charged drops fall to the bottom of the cloud, forming a strong positive charge. The effect of wind on raindrops is to break them up and change them from positively charged drops to negatively charged droplets. Thus every thundercloud is seen to be really a huge electrical generator. The earth itself is a great storage battery of negative electricity, estimated at 600,000,000 volts.
When a charge of electricity in a cloud gets sufficiently great the lightning flash takes place. This may take place from the top to the base of a cloud, or between the base of the cloud and the earth, or between one cloud and another, sometimes over distances of twenty miles.
A flash of lightning always produces a powerful inductive effect, which may cause flashes to occur in rapid succession. It frequently happens that a negatively charged cloud approaches the earth, and in doing so the inductive effect changes its charge to positive, and a thunderstorm follows.
One of the most beautiful of the Psalms of David is David's description of a thunderstorm. He says poetically, describing both the thunder and the lightning, "The voice of the Lord divideth the flames of fire." —Psalm 20: 7.
WOOD MORE DURABLE THAN IRON
GREENHEART TREES grow in dense jungles of South America and require great labor and expense to cut and ship. They are so heavy that they will sink instantly alone and when placed in the water will outlast iron or steel. For this reason, and because they are impervious to the attacks of insects, they are used for the sills of drydocks and canal locks. This wood has been known to stand under water for over a hundred years and remain in perfectly sound condition. The wood used in the gates of the Canada Dock, built in 1856, was so perfectly preserved that it was used again in 1894.
HOUSEWIFERY and HYGIENE
NERVOUS AND STUPID CHILDREN
TO ACHIEVE MARKED SUCCESS, a man needs brains plus physical endurance, and every ambitious father wants his boys to have that surplus of physical vitality which spells courage, initiative and persistence. No amount of mere intellectual keeness or useful information can make up for the loss of vitality which enables men and women to enjoy the struggle of life and get on well with other people.
It is the delicate, finely attuned instrument which is most easily thrown off the key, and it is the sensitive, high-strung child whose nerves are most easily injured by overstrain. Such children should be checked rather than spurred, and their eager desire to please should not be exploited to tickle the vanity or ambition of parents and teachers. Many a nervous breakdown at thirty or forty is due to overstimulation and overactivity when the child should have been laying up a store of energy and forming habits of physical and emotional thrift.
It is of great importance that a child should have the normal weight for his age and height. If a child is seriously underweight this is an indication that something is wrong. It means that he is using up his energy more rapidly than he should, and that some day he will have to pay for it.
Stupid children require attention for a different reason. It has been estimated that from 3,000,000 to 5,000,000 American school children have adenoids, diseased tonsils and other glandular defects, which are making them appear stupid and are causing them to be backward in school. The child troubled with adenoids breathes through his mouth, and a lax lower jaw and vacant, sleepy eyes give an unmistakable expression of stupidity and dullness. The transformation in such children when the adenoids, by a slight operation, are removed, is often very rapid. The child with adenoids is stupid and sleepy, because he is not getting enough oxygen, and his blood is consequently laden with impurities and the cells of his brain are not properly nourished.
It is also estimated that one-fifth of all the school children in the country, or 5,000,000, are malnourished. Undernourishment is the soil of diminished resistance upon which all sorts of physical and mental diseases grow. Malnourished children, having little reserve energy, fatigue easily. A healthy child recuperates quickly. Overfatigue lessens a child's abil-
ity to digest his food. Malnourished children should especially be guarded against getting too tired.
Children require about a pint and a half of milk per day apiece in order to keep in the best condition; if they dislike it as a beverage it may be disguised in the form of cocoa, milk soup, custard or cream sauce for vegetables. Well-cooked cereals, especially oatmeal, should form one of the mainstays of the breakfast. Green vegetables contain substances which stimulate growth and are helpful to the intestines because of their bulk.
The question of sleep Is especially important for malnourished or nervous children. American children, as a rule, get too little sleep. They should retire early, and take a noon nap, preferably before lunch.
A nervous, sleepless child can often be put to sleep by having him spend a quarter of an hour in a bath of ninety degrees. When a nervous child flies into a temper or tantrum, scolding and punishment will usually only increase the nervous tension. A warm bath and a quiet rest time in bed are more likely to meet his needs.
Practically all the children found suffering from malnutrition were found to be accustomed to having either tea or coffee at breakfast.
In the matter of food and all other matters of the physical and mental health of children, no better philosophy has ever been devised than that which puts the responsibility upon the parents. "Train up a child in the way that he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it" —Proverbs 11:11.
TEETH EXTRACTION A CURE FOR DISEASE
DR. COTTON, of the New Jersey Hospital, at Trenton, discovered that many of the patients suffering from mental disease had also serious chronic infections of the teeth, tonsils and stomach, and that by removing the infected teeth he was able to restore many patients who, with former methods of treatment, became chronic patients and remained in the hospital until the time of their death. At a result of the extraction of infected teeth Dr. Cotton was able to increase the proportion of discharges to admissions from 43% to 87%; in other words to double the number of patients who left the hospital.
The X-ray photographs of teeth show that many people have infected teeth who have no knowledge of it The failure of the dentist to recognize the exist-
ance of root infection and the practise of putting in pivots, gold crowns and bridge work without first taking radiographs to be sure that there are no infected roots has caused more rheumatism, pernicious anemia, heart disease, Bright's disease and mental diseases than we can measure. Bacteria at the roots of infected teeth must have an outlet, especially if the tooth has been crowned and all means of drainage from the upper part of the tooth is thereby cut off. Then the bacteria filter through the bone in which the teeth are embedded, migrate to other organs and set up secondary foci of infection. The only known prevention of the effects of this infection is to have all teeth removed in which the nerves have been destroyed, as well as the teeth known to be infected. No one should attempt to preserve teeth by having the nerves killed. Such teeth should be extracted.
These death-dealing germs, hidden away out of sight about the roots of the teeth, suggest those secret faults which undermine and destroy character. "Cleanse thou me from secret faults." —Psalm 19:12.
WASHING MADE EASY
THERE is no dodging the family wash. It has to be done. It is done. The weekly expense for an average family in moderate circumstances is calculated at $3.00. Of this amount $2.00 goes to the laundress, 10c. for her carfare, 35c. for her lunch, 25c. for soaps and powders used, and 30c. for electricity consumed.
The electric washer has made a great change in many households. One woman reports that it takes her one and one-half hours to do the week's wash, fifteen minutes to get the water ready and put the machine away, and one and one-quarter hours to do the actual washing. Her machine runs with a quarter horse-power motor, consuming about 15c. worth of current per month, and the soap and washing powder run the total monthly bill up to 40c. She calculates that in three and one-third years she has paid for her machine, paid the interest on the investment at 6%, and cleared over $50.00 in cash, besides not being bothered by having a laundress around.
Another woman reports that it costs her one and one-half cents an hour to run the machine, another that previous to the purchase of a machine she employed a laundress for two days each week and now that she does her own wash in three hours per week with no help whatever. Another, with a family of eight reports that four hours a week suffices for the wash, and another that in 142 washes she used 200 cakes of soap with the electric washer. Another, a mother with a large family of small children, reported that she did the family washing every Monday morn-
ing between 5.30 and 7.00 o'clock, while her husband cared for the children.
The method of washing by an electric washer is very simple. The tub of the machine is filled with lukewarm water into which a solution of one-half cup of soda crystals and one-half jar of soap jelly, made from any kind of soap, is placed. The motor is started and when it gets humming the clutch is thrown in and the solution churned for two minutes until sudsy; then the machine is stopped and the clothes put in. The machine is then run 15 minutes for ordinary washes or longer for clothes badly soiled. The clothes are rinsed in the machine in scalding water, all of one kind being rinsed together. In rinsing, the machine is run another five minutes and the clothes are then wrung out into cold bluing water ready to be hung out to dry. The cost of the electric washer is $100 for the preferred designs.
Probably no part of the Bible has thus far had a more significant fulfilment than the statement, "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." (Genesis 3:19.) The fact that we see in every direction the elimination of the arduous work of mankind is in itself a happy augury of the coming approach of Messiah's kingdom, the dawn of the Golden Age.
"FAMINE AND PESTILENCE"
WARNINGS are issued by the medical profession to get ready for a recurrence of Influenza. The history of epidemics shows a recurrence in the succeeding year, and the black plague —alias "Influenza" —is expected to stalk through the land again this fall. Public Health Departments are in receipt of many anxious letters of inquiry, and in answer the warning is going out to prepare for what is coming.
The good advice is given to build up strength to meet a possible Influenza attack. As a preventive, exercise and good food are recommended.
Health Departments express themselves that the expected epidemic will be less serious than that of 1918, because many of the population are immune through having had the disease once.
Brotherly love among men would banish influenza. It would see that all had the vitality builders of good food, good air, plenty of light and outdoor exercise. Lack of love among men is destined, in the near future, to bring the further fulfillment of the word of Jehovah: "in divers places pestilences" (Luke, 21:11); "before him [preceding his Kingdom presence] went the pestilence" (Habakkuk, 3:5) ; "I have sent among you the pestilence." —Amos, 4:10.
RELIGION and PHILOSOPHY
NEGLECT OF THE BIBLE
THE PURPOSE OF THIS MAGAZINE in providing a Religious Department is that the common people at little cost and inconvenience to themselves may carry on a systematic course of Bible study in their homes. In this department will be found discussion of Bible questions and explanation of Scripture passages of the deepest interest to all students without regard to creed or denomination. It is not our purpose or desire to induce any one to join anything. Our purpose here is purely educational.
No nation or people can afford to neglect Bible study. It will be conceded on every hand that the rush and hurry of the twentieth century has greatly retarded Bible study. The people are feeling the result thereof. We hope to turn their minds back to a sober, candid consideration of the great truths contained in the Scriptures.
The Bible is the torch of civilization and liberty. Its influence for good in society has been recognized by the greatest statesmen of all times. Aside from being a masterpiece of literature, science and poetry, it contains a statement of God's purposes concerning the human race. In times past it was not possible to be understood for the reason that it was not God's time for it to be understood. The Bible itself assures us that a period of time would come in which the people would understand and appreciate the Bible teachings and profit from these teachings.
The prophecies of the Scriptures are in fact the history of the world written in advance. It must be evident to every reasonable person that no human mind could have foretold centuries ago the happening of present-day events. The Scriptures declare that holy men of old wrote the Bible as their minds were moved to act by the invisible influence and power of Jehovah. In harmony with this expressed thought, Jehovah caused the Prophet Daniel to give a brief outline of the world's history from the time of Nebuchadnezzar until the present day. Although Daniel had a mental vision of things that should come to pass, yet he could not understand them and he records this fact, saying, "I heard but I understood not. Then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things? And he [Jehovah] said, Go thy way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end. Many shall be purified and made white and tried, but the wicked shall do wickedly and none of the
wicked shall understand but the wise shall understand." (Daniel 12:8-10.) The wise mentioned here is not necessarily one who is learned after the manner of earthly wisdom, but is the one who possesses a reverential desire to know Jehovah's purpose concerning man. The Scriptures referring to such say, "The reverence of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." "The secret of the Lord is with them that reverence Him and He will show them His plan."
The Bible is a great treasure house of knowledge and wisdom. It claims to be a revelation from Jehovah concerning man, his origin, his course and what will lead to his final happiness, peace and joy. It is the oldest book in existence. It was given to the Israelites, the chosen people of the Lord, and handed down from one generation to another, and has been miraculously preserved by Divine intervention. It has outlived the storms of centuries. Men have endeavored by every possible means to destroy it. They have hidden it, burned it and attempted to compel the people to refrain from studying it; yet the book still lives and more and more is mankind realizing the need of understanding it. If all the peoples of the world to-day understood the Scriptures and diligently sought to abide by their teachings, there would not be a strike known in the land; there would be no labor troubles; there would be no serious conflict between labor and capital; there would be no suffering of the people from the unrighteous conduct of the profiteers; there would not be the present distress of nations with perplexity. It is equally true that the Bible contains a clear statement of the Divine remedy provided for the rectification of all these difficulties.
It is quite probable that very few are aware of the fact that the world's great systems of transportation by steam, electricity, gas engines, flying machines, and the general great increase of knowledge was foretold centuries ago and that Jehovah caused His Prophet Daniel to make record of it. In the light of present-day events we can see that this record was made for the very purpose of calling the student's attention to the fact that we have reached a great change in the social order of things. Daniel had been told that in the time of the end the Scriptures would be unfolded and understood by the student who was wise after God's order of wisdom. Then Jehovah caused him to record that which would constitute proof that the desired time had been reached. "But thou, O Daniel,
shut up the words and seal the book until the time of the end. Many shall run to and fro and knowledge shall be increased." (Daniel 12:4.) The "time of the end" here mentioned clearly does not mean the end of time, because time will never end; nor does it mean the end of the earth and its destruction; but it does mean the end of the world, i.e., the end of a certain long-established social order of things —the. end of a period of time. We may confidently know, then, that the great inventions and increase of knowledge which have reached a climax in the day in which we are living is one of the strongest proofs of the authenticity of the Scriptures as the Divine word and a further proof that we have reached the end of the old order and the beginning of a new, a different and better order.
And this is the rime in which the Scriptures are to be understood. This is the time in which the people have greater need to understand them; and the sufferings and trials, distress and disturbances that have come upon the peoples of earth will cause them to turn their minds and hearts to searching the Scriptures as they have not done before.
That the nations are in distress and the people perplexed is evidenced upon every hand. What the people really want to know is how they can extricate themselves from the present dilemma. If Divine wisdom foreknew and foretold the present dilemma, then we may reasonably expect to find in the Bible a Divinely provided remedy for relieving the people; and this we do find.
In subsequent issues of this magazine it is our purpose to show the progressive development of Jehovah's plan from the time of creation of the earth down to the present day, and by placing the prophecies alongside of current history — the things which we daily see coming to pass — to produce the incontrovertible proof that we are standing at the very portals of the Golden Age.
The Golden Age has been the great desire of men and nations for many centuries. Jehovah established a model government amongst the Israelites and gave to them a perfect code of laws. Had they been able to keep those laws perfectly the Golden Age would have come in their day. The Lord dealt with that people, as shown both by sacred and profane history, for a period of 1800 years and then cast them off because of their unfaithfulness. He used their experience, however, to teach other nations a great lesson which has been profitable for Christians throughout the Gospel Age and which will now be profitable for all the world. The inability of the Israelites to keep the perfect law proved
that man without the aid of the Lord cannot bring in the Golden Age, and further shows that when man has reached his extremity it will be God's opportunity to establish the very things that man desires. The prophetic proof is that shortly following the end of the Gentile Times (which, in fact, ended in 1914) the Lord will make a new covenant arrangement with the people through the medium or intervention of the great Messiah, and by and through this means establish a perfect condition on the earth. Under such an arrangement profiteering will be impossible. The oppression of the masses by the classes will be impossible. The people will be taught righteousness and in order that they might profit thereby evil influences will be restrained. They will be taught just what to eat and how to eat it, how to exercise, what is correct and proper conduct, the proper things to read and study, how to keep the law perfectly; and this much-needed aid ministered by and through the Messiah will open the way for the blessing of all the nations and peoples of the earth in harmony with the promise made by Jehovah four thousand years ago.
Concerning the order of things under the wise and perfect ruler and the beneficent influence of the government during that time, the prophet of the Lord wrote: "And the government shall be upon his [Messiah's] shoulder; and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace; and of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end" (Isaiah 9:6, 7). Furthermore, the prophet says concerning the righteousness of His reign: "With righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins and faithfulness the girdle of his reins. The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain [kingdom]: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." — Isaiah 11:4-9.
Some of the blessings that will come to the people during the Messianic reign are described by the
prophet thus: "Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall water break out, and streams in the desert. And the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away." — Isaiah 35:5, 6, 10.
That these promises to mankind may be more clearly understood and better appreciated, we will, beginning with a subsequent number of this magazine, publish a series of articles showing the progressive steps of Jehovah's arrangements from the time of the creation of earth up to the glorious cul-
mination of the lasting blessings of mankind, which Jehovah promises shall constitute the desire of all nations.
To the people now we say, Be not discouraged because of the stress of the times in which we are living, but be brave and very courageous. Avail yourselves of opportunity of acquiring more knowledge of the Divine revelation concerning the coming blessings of the world that you may be able to more fully profit by these blessings when they do come. Avoid strife and contention; be calm and considerate of all, rendering righteousness unto every one and patiently waiting the Lord's good time to establish complete righteousness in the earth.
TALKING WITH THE DEAD (?)
(By a Member of the New York Bar)
MAN'S greatest desire is to live forever in a state of happiness. Nothing has been so certain as death. Truly the proverb says, "The living know that they shall die." Nearly every living person has lost some friend, relative or loved one in death. The present condition of the dead ones is of great interest to the living for two reasons: (1) because the living are keenly interested in their friends and loved ones; and (2) because the living contemplate that they may soon go to the same place. Naturally, the living examine anything that purports to teach that they can talk with their departed friends. This desire to communicate with the departed ones has been greatly augmented by conditions produced by the war, because so many have died as a result of the war and many more have died from the pestilence that came in the time of the war.
Recently the public press has printed much concerning the dead and the ability of certain living ones to communicate with the dead. These published experiences are attracting wide attention throughout the world and should not be passed by lightly. If the living can talk with the dead, then all the people should know it On the other hand, if from a fair consideration of all the evidence we should find that the living cannot talk with the dead, but that the testimony produced in support of the contention is deceptive and misleading, then, of course, the people should be acquainted with these facts.
It is interesting to note the class of men who are producing and publishing this evidence. They are not of the superstitious, ignorant or uneducated. On the contrary, from the world's viewpoint, they are men of great learning, of high moral and social standing,
and of strictest integrity. As such matters are usually considered, they are strictly competent witnesses, whose testimony should be candidly weighed and considered. We introduce a few of these witnesses and give excerpts from their testimony as published in the public press by the Metropolitan Newspaper Service.
Prof. James H. Hyslop, Ph.D., LL.D., Secretary of the American Society for Psychical Research, testifies that interest in psychic phenomena has greatly increased since the war; that such was predicted before the war through Mrs. Piper in a message quoted by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Prof. Hyslop further states that the present wide interest is due to a combination of influences: first, the wholesale loss of life; and second, the materialistic state of the age; that by far the largest number of persons who became interested in psychic research bad their interest aroused by the death of some friend or relative; that finding the clergymen knew no more about the matter than themselves, or could offer only faith as an escape from doubt, they sought the psychic research for help; that it is doubtful if the same interest would have been aroused by the same war in the Middle Ages.
Many ask, Why should the recent world war create such an increased interest in psychic phenomena? We expect to show herein that it is due time for such increased interest and that the war is merely incidental to it.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, a positive witness that the living communicate with the dead(?), has written much on the subject. It will be noticed that the messages which purport to come from the dead come through a medium. A few excerpts from his testimony follow:
"I think that the presumption is very clear that in the case of some mediums, like Eusapia Paladino, they may be guilty of trickery when their powers fail them; and yet at other times have genuine gifts.
"When the war came it brought earnestness into our souls and made us look more closely at our own beliefs and reassess their value.
"The religious side of it I saw to be of infinitely greater importance and it is this of which I will presently speak. It seemed to me that all these phenomena large and small have been the telephone bells which said to the human race, 'Rouse yourselves, stand by, be at attention! Here are signs for you. They will lead you up to the message which God wishes to send.' Physical phenomena make religion a very real thing; no longer a matter of faith, but a matter of actual experience and fact.
"I have spoken of a body of fresh doctrine. Whence does this come? It comes in the main through automatic writing where the hand of the human medium is controlled either by an alleged dead human being or by an alleged angel. . . . These written communications are supplemented by a vast number of utterances and by the verbal message of spirits given through the lips of mediums. Sometimes it has even come by direct voices. It has come through the family circle and table tilting.
"The lessons we may learn teach us of the continued life of the soul; of the nature of that life and how it is influenced by our conduct here. If this is distinct from religion, I must confess that I do not understand the distinction. To me it is religion, the very essence of it.
"As to other creeds, it must be admitted that an. acceptance of the teachings brought to us from beyond would greatly modify conventional Christianity.
"Most vital of all, it would confirm and make absolutely certain the fact of life after death, the basis of all religion. It would confirm the unhappy results of sin, although it would shaw that these results are never permanent. It would confirm the idea of heaven and a temporary penal taste which corresponds to purgatory rather than to hell. Christianity must change or must perish. She has deferred it until her churches are half empty, until women are her chief supporters and until both the learned part of the community on the one side and the poorest class on the other are largely alienated from her. The people are alienated because they frankly do not believe the facts presented to them to be tru. Thir reason and their sense of justice is equally offended. One can see no justice in the vicarious sacrifice nor in the God who would be placated by such means. Above all, many cannot understand such expressions as, the redemption from sin.
"Never was there any evidence of a fall of man; but if there were no fall then what became of the atonement, of the redemption, of original sin, of a large part of Christian mystical philosophy? Too much seems to have been made of Christ's death. Men die continually for their convictions. Thousands of our lads did in France. Therefore the death of Christ, beautiful as it is in the Gospel narrative, has seemed to assume undue importance. Too much stress has been laid upon Christ's death and far too little upon His life. That was where the true grandeur and the true lesson lay. Never had any one such a robust common sense or such a sympathy for weakness. It was this most wonderful and uncommon life and not His (Christ's) death which is the true center of the Christian religion.
"He (Christ) came down at a time of great earthly depravity, a time when the world was almost as wicked as it is now; in order to give the people an example and teaching of an ideal life. Then He returned to His own high station, having left an example which is still occasionally followed.
"If such a view of Christianity were generally accepted, then I think we should have a creed which might unite the churches, which might be reconciled with science, which might defy all attacks, which might carry the Christian faith on for an indefinite period.
"Messages from the dead have been received in many lands at various times, mixed with a good deal about this world which we could verify. The messages upon these points seem to me to be infinitely reassuring, whether we regard our own fate or that of our friends. The departed agree that passing is usually easy and painless and followed by an enormous reaction of peace and ease.
"The spirit is not a glorified angel or a goblin, but it is simply the person himself, retaining all his strength and weaknesses, his wisdom and his folly, exactly as he has retained his personal appearance.
"Communications usually come front those who have not long passed over and tend to grow fainter as one would expect. There is in Mr. Dawson Rogers' life a very good case of a spirit who called himself Manton and claimed to have been born at Lawrence, Lydiard, and buried in Stoke, Newington, in 1677. It was clearly shown afterward that there was such a man and that he was Oliver Cromwell's chaplain. So far as my own reading goes this is the oldest spirit on record as returning. All agree that life beyond is for a limited period, after which they pass on to yet other places, but apparently there is more communication between these phases than between us and the spirit land."
Other witnesses of the same character as Sir Conan Doyle are Prof. Crawford, Prof. Lodge, Prof. Barrett, Gerald Balfour, Bishop Fallows, Rev. Fielding Ould, Archdeacon Wilberforce, and many others of more or less prominence.
The distinguished witnesses above mentioned claim to believe in Jehovah God as the great First Cause, the all-wise and eternal One. They admit that Jesus Christ came down from heaven, was a man, lived on earth; that He died, was resurrected and returned to heaven.
They quote from the Bible and thereby admit the authenticity of the Scriptures — that the Bible is the Word of God.
With these admissions from the wise and distinguished witnesses we have a basis from which to reason and a rule by which their testimony may be weighed and considered. Just here we are reminded of the words of the Prophet Isaiah speaking as the mouthpiece of Jehovah, relating to the very question under consideration: "And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards [mediums] that peep and that mutter [say unto them]: should not a people seek unto their
God? the living on behalf of the dead? To the law and the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." (Isaiah 8:19, 20.). In other phrase, the Lord's prophet here says that all the testimony offered with reference to communication with the dead, if not in harmony with and supported by the Word of God is conclusively proved untrue. God is His own interpreter and He will explain His Word to those who seek to understand it The Bible is the Word of Truth. "For prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit." (2 Peter 1:21.) It was Jesus Christ who said, "Thy word is truth." (John. 17:17.) "All Scripture divinely inspired is indeed profitable for teaching, for instruction, for correction, for that discipline which is in righteousness, so that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly fitted for every good work." (2 Timothy 3:16, 17, Diaglott.) Then by the testimony of the Bible let us examine these questions and settle them accordingly.
It must be conceded in the outset that if the dead can communicate with the living then the dead are conscious after death and know everything that is transpiring. The first important question, then, to determine by the Scriptures is —
ARE THE DEAD CONSCIOUS?
We quote some pertinent Scriptures bearing directly on the point: "In death there is no remembrance of thee; in the grave who shall give thee thanks?" (Psalm 6:5). "Wilt thou show wonders to the dead? Shall the dead arise and praise thee? Shall thy loving kindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction?" (Psalm 88:10, 11). "Thou turnest man to destruction" (Psalm 90:3). "The dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go down into silence." — Psalm 115:17.
The Scriptures clearly show that one who dies stops breathing, does not think, has no feeling; therefore could not be conscious. "His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish." — Psalm 146:4.
"For the living know that they shall die, but the dead know not anything." — Ecclesiastes 9:5.
"Whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might, for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave whither thou goest. — Ecclesiastes 9:10.
"Nevertheless, man being in honor abideth not; he is like the beasts that perish." — Psalm 49:12.
Jesus declared that all the dead are in their graves and asleep — unconscious, knowing nothing (John
5:28, 29). The Apostle Paul speaks of the dead being asleep, unconscious, knowing nothing. — 1 Corinthians 15:18; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18.
But, it will be insisted, the above Scriptures have reference to the body being dead and unconscious, but the soul continues to live. As above quoted, Sir Conan Doyle says: "The results of psychic research, the deductions which we may draw and the lessons we may learn teach us of the continued life of the soul." We quote from Bishop Fallows as follows: "In recent years great strides have been made in the explanation of psychic phenomena and in the years to come the science of communication with the dead will be made a part of the curriculum of great educational institutions. I have called the new science Immortalism because it depends for its existence on the immortality of the soul, in which we all believe, and the preservation of identity beyond the grave."
From the two eminent witnesses above quoted, it is seen that the theory of communication with the dead rests strictly upon the old doctrine of inherent immortality of the soul. Is the immortality of the soul supported by the Bible? Our answer is, there is just one Scripture in the Bible that supports it and that Scripture Jesus declares is a lie and the first lie ever told, and Satan told it. It is found in Genesis 3:5. The occasion was Satan using the serpent as a medium through which to speak to Mother Eve and thereby deceive her with reference to eating of the forbidden fruit The woman said, "We may not eat of the fruit in the midst of the garden of Eden, for God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die." And to this Satan replied, "Ye shall not surely die; for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil." This statement of Satan, "Ye shall not surely die," has been the foundation of every false doctrine from then until now and it is the one to which Jesus referred when speaking of Satan as the father of lies.
Subsequent to the violation of God's law, Adam and his wife Eve were sentenced to death and driven from Eden and in due course of time they died. Was it merely the body or the soul that died? Let us first determine what is the soul. Man is a soul; he does not possess a soul. Every living creature is a soul. We say a man has a cow; he possesses a cow. But we would not say a man is a cow. "And the Lord God formed man out of the dust of the earth and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man became a living soul" — Genesis 2:7.
Clearly, then, we see that Jehovah formed from the elements of the earth the body of man and then breathed into his nostrils the breath which living creatures breathe. This breath animated the body, started the circulation, and the result was a moving, sentient being, which God designated a soul. God in His Word applied the term living soul to the lower order of animals long before the creation of man. (See Genesis 1:20, 30, marginal reading.) He also used the word soul as applicable to beasts, saying, "Levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep." — Numbers 31:28.
When one dies, then, it means a separation of the breath of life from the body, which means extinction of the soul, just as the beasts die. "For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity. All go unto one place; are all of the dust, and all turn to dust again" (Ecclesiastes 3:19, 20). To settle all question about the soul being subject to death or not, the Psalmist says, "What man is he that liveth and shall not see death? shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?" (Psalm 89:48.) But even more explicit are these words, "The soul that sinneth it shall die" (Ezekiel 18:4). If the soul were immortal, it would not be subject to death; not even God would be able to destroy it. Jesus plainly said that Jehovah has the power to destroy the soul. — Matthew 10:28.
Who then is immortal? The Scriptures answer, "The blessed and only potentate, the king of kings and lord of lords, who only hath immortality" (1 Timothy 6:15, 16). Immortality means that which is not subject to death and is offered as a great prize to the faithful follower of Jesus unto death. "Who will render to every man according to his deeds: to them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory, honor and immortality, eternal life." — Romans 2:6, 7.
This prize of immortality is offered to none except the Christian, who having made a consecration to do God's will, continues faithfully unto death. To such Jesus said, "Be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown of life" (Revelation 2:10). Again the Scriptures say, "This mortal must put on immortality" (1 Corinthians 15:53). And here the words are addressed only to the faithful unto death. The Bible plainly teaches that "man is of the earth, earthy"; he is not spiritual (1 Corinthians 15:45-47).
Man is a human being; he is not a spirit being. "A spirit [being] hath not flesh and bones" (Luke 24:39). The Apostle in his argument in 1 Corinthians 15 plainly shows that human or natural beings have human or natural bodies; that Adam was a human and not a spiritual being; that none are given spiritual bodies except the faithful followers of Christ Jesus and they receive such only at the resurrection.
These Scriptures, then, prove conclusively (and there is none to contradict them) that man has not an immortal soul; that man is not a spirit being but a human; that man when he dies is dead and is not conscious; therefore could not possibly communicate with any who are living.
The testimony of the eminent witnesses above cited is in direct contradiction of the Bible. First. they deny that man was created a perfect human being and fell. On the contrary, they teach the doctrine of evolution; namely, that man evolved from a much lower order and has been progressing since. The Bible says that God created man in His own image and likeness (Genesis 1:26, 27) and we are certain that God never was an ape nor in the form of one. In addition to this, the Scriptures plainly declare, "His work is perfect" (Deuteronomy 32:4 The Scriptural account plainly shows that man violated God's law and was driven from Eden, his perfect home, sentenced to death, and died; that this sentence was in process of execution covering a period of 930 years; that the perfect man begot no children, but only the imperfect man under the sentence, of death exercised his power of transmitting life. It reasonably follows, then, that the imperfect man could not beget a perfect child. Hence God's prophet wrote, "Behold, I was shapen in iniquity and in sin did my mother conceive me" (Psalm 51:5). Again, "Wherefore, as by one man [Adam] sin entered the world and death by sin, so death passed upon all men for that all have sinned" (Romans 5:12). Human experience corroborates the teaching of the Bible, as it is well known by all careful observers that the human race is degenerating and has been for centuries; and no evolutionist has ever yet been able to prove any progress of the lower order of animals to a higher order, nor has any connecting link been found between animals and men.
The testimony of the eminent witnesses above mentioned in substance denies the ransom sacrifice and one of them in particular expressly denies it. While the death of Christ is admitted, the value of His death is positively denied.
The Scriptures plainly teach that there is no other name given under heaven whereby we must be saved. (Acts 4:12) "I determined not to know anything among you save Jesus Christ and him crucified." —1 Corinthians 2:2.
The whole race was under the condemnation of death through Adam's disobedience. The only way for them to get out from under that burden is by a ransom price being provided and paid. A ransom means a corresponding price. Adam was a perfect man and there was no man on earth who could redeem the race or give God a ransom for him. Psalm 4:7.) God promised that He would ransom man from the power of the grave and redeem him from death. (Hosea 13:14.) The life of Jesus was transferred from the spirit to the human plane. He was begotten by the power of Jehovah, was born holy, harmless, separate from sinners, without defilement Concerning Him we read, "We see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man." — Hebrews 2:9.
Sir Conan Doyle says, "He (Jesus) came down upon the earth to give the people the example and teaching of an ideal life." Of Himself Jesus says, "I am come that they [the people] might have life and that they might have it more abundantly." We believe that Jesus is a better witness than Sir Conan Doyle because He was the son of God and spoke with authority and knew more about His mission to earth than any man. Again Jesus said, "Even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto but to minister and to give his life a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28.) Again Jesus said, "God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." (John 3:16.) Sir Conan Doyle and his corroborative witnesses see the absolute necessity for denying the fall of man, the great atonement sacrifice and the paying of the ransom price in order to sustain their theory that the dead are alive, because the consciousness of the dead absolutely denies the necessity for a redeemer.
There is no teaching in the Scripture that has brought more comfort and consolation to the heart of the real thinker than that of the resurrection of the dead. If the theory that the dead are alive and can communicate with the living is correct, then the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead is absolutely false. Resurrection means a restanding to life, which would be impossible if the dead were already alive. Since these eminent witnesses admit
the authenticity of the Scriptures, let their case stand or fall by them.
The testimony quoted from Sir Conan Doyle admits that Jesus died and rose from the dead and ascended on high. St. Paul, the inspired witness of Jehovah and whose testimony we believe to be more reliable than that of the eminent scholars of our present time, concerning the dead said: "Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen: and if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain. Yea, and ye are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: and if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins. Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished."
The Apostle then proceeds to prove conclusively that Christ did rise from the dead and then positively states: "For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as all in Adam die, even so all in Christ shall be made alive. But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his appearing." Again St. Paul states, "There shall be a resurrection of the dead, both just and unjust" (Acts 24:15). Jesus testified, "Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming in which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice and shall come forth." (John 5 38.) Jesus gave an illustration when he awakened Lazarus as to how the dead shall be awakened. (John 11:6-44.) It will be noticed in this last instance that Lazarus had been dead four days and Jesus did not call him back from the spirit world, but he caused the stone to be rolled away from the tomb and then "cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth; and he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with grave clothes." The record is absolutely silent on the matter of his consciousness while he was dead.
Thus it will be seen that the testimony of the eminent witnesses above cited, who have recently startled the world with their statements, is flatly contradicted by the Scriptures.
Sir Conan Doyle in his testimony says, "My point is that psychical phenomena must, when properly understood and digested, make religion a very real thing and no longer a matter of faith, but a matter of actual experience," Jesus said, "Nevertheless,
when the son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth?" (Luke 18:8.) These eminent gentlemen would destroy faith in God's Word as a veritable fulfillment of the Master's prophecy.
But, some will say, can it be possible that these eminent scholars are telling falsehoods and trying to deceive the people by making them believe that the spirits of dead men can tip tables and make them walk, can cause the hand to write, can speak through mediums and can even make their voices heard direct? How these things impress the mind of another is illustrated by the following incident: The father of Mr. A had been dead a number of years. He was met by a spiritist, who said to him, "Mr. A, would you like to talk to your father?" Mr. A replied, "Why my father is dead." "Yes," replied his questioner, "but you can communicate with the dead." Mr. A expressed his unbelief. Then his questioner said, "Mr. A, are you willing to give the matter a trial and let me demonstrate to you that you can talk to your father? If you will go to a certain number on a certain street and call for Mrs.— and say to her you have come to communicate with one of your dead friends, but do not tell her whom; and then put her to the test and see if she can call up your dead father." Mr. A assents. He calls on the woman, who is known as a spiritualistic medium. He says to her, "I came here for the purpose of communicating with a dead friend. I am a skeptic, but I came at the instance of my friend and I want you to prove to me whether or not I can talk to some one who is dead." The medium replies, "If you will do what I tell, you, I will make an effort to put you into communication with the one with whom you would like to talk. The conditions I impose upon you are these: First, you must sit quietly in that chair. You must not resist me with the power of your will, but be entirely submissive and willing to be convinced. You must then center your mind upon the person with whom you would like to talk." Mr. A agrees to the conditions and carries them out, sitting quietly, being willing to be convinced and, therefore, submitting his will. In a short time the medium announces the presence of some one who wishes to talk to him. Mr. A listens and presently he hears a voice speaking to him and he recognizes it as the voice of his father, long since dead. The father then relates to him certain events that transpired in Mr. A's boyhood and also tells him other things which Mr. A subsequently proves from other evidence is correct. A has been a Christian up to this time, thoroughly believing in the Bible. Now he goes away, however,
convinced that his father is alive and not dead and is able to talk with him.
The question is, Did Mr. A hear his father's voice? We answer, No, because his father was dead and the Scriptures conclusively prove that dead men do not talk. Experience proves the same thing. But can it be denied that he heard a voice? And we answer, No; nor will there be any attempt to deny it. We admit that he heard a voice. We admit that Sir Conan Doyle and all of his eminent associates who testify to communicating with the dead are testifying to what they believe to be the truth and that they have heard voices, seen writing and observed tables walk. But instead of this being the work or voices of the spirits of departed men, we answer that the voices and works are those of demons who never were men, and this we will prove by the Scriptures; and proving this assertion by the Scriptures ought to be sufficient to satisfy every one, in the light of other Scriptures heretofore cited, that the dead are not conscious and cannot communicate with the living.
Lucifer, who afterward became Satan, was in Eden as the overseer of man. He deceived Mother Eve and caused the death sentence to come upon her and Adam. In pronouncing this sentence, Jehovah said, "I will put enmity between thee and the woman and between thy seed and her seed. And it shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise his heel." — Genesis 3:15.
Satan was deprived of his position as overseer of man. Adam having lost his dominion, there was none in the earth in authority. Horrified at the results of Lucifer's wrongful course, the angels of heaven (sons of God) desired to uplift man and God permitted certain ones of them to undertake the task. (Hebrews 2:5; Genesis 6:1-5.) These angels were granted the power to materialize in human form and to assume dominion over the affairs of earth. They likewise had power to dematerialize. Satan determined that he would not be thwarted in his purpose of opposing Jehovah. He had become a liar and the father of lies and now, with a malignant heart, he set about to seduce these angels, his former companions in glory, and through them to retain control over man. He injected into the minds of these spirit beings the thought to take wives from amongst the daughters of men, which they did, thereby leaving their own loftier estate. Thus Satan caused the angels to sin and fall. The offspring resulting from this unholy alliance filled the earth with violence and God announced His determination to destroy all flesh in the earth. He
so advised Noah and then brought on the deluge.
Noah and his family, eight in all, not having been contaminated by these evil ones, received favor in God's sight and were saved in the ark which Noah had builded at the direction of Jehovah. The great flood destroyed all fleshly beings save those that were in the ark. The angelic beings, however, exercising their power to dematerialize, were not destroyed. What became of them? The Bible answers that they were restrained of their liberty and confined in the darkness of the atmosphere near the earth. "God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to tartarus [mistranslated hell] and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved unto judgment" (2 Peter 2:4.) "The angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day." (Jude 6.) In this condition they were to be restrained until the judgment day, the inference being that at the judgment day they would exercise greater power than at any time since the flood. At no time since the flood have they been permitted to materialize in human form. We here assert that the judgment of the fallen angels is at hand and therefore this explains why they exercise so much more power now than at any other time. Of this we will speak later. Since the time of the deluge they have had power to communicate with the human race only through the instrumentality of willing mediums.
The Scriptures designate Satan as the prince of devils or demons. (Matthew 12:24.) In some manner Satan has dominated the other demons or devils. He is spoken of as "the prince of the power of the air" and "the god of this world." (Ephesians 2:2; 2 Corinthians 4:4.) The first lie was the word spoken by Satan to Mother Eve, "Ye shall not surely die"; and ever since he has kept before the minds of humanity the falsehood "There is no death." The theory that every man has an immortal soul finds proof only in Satan's lie. To sustain his false position Satan has ever kept before man's mind that the dead are alive, even more so than before death. The evil spirits otherwise spoken of as demons, under the control of Satan, have aided him in carrying out this great lie. Many times the Scriptures refer to them as "lying spirits."
The communication of man with these evil spirits impersonating the dead is not a new thing. It has persisted since the flood. When God made the Law Covenant with the nation of Israel, as a safeguard against these demons He provided in the Law that any one who would consult a medium concerning
the dead should be put to death. (Exodus 22:18; Leviticus 19:31; 20: 6, 27.) An attempt to communicate with them was declared by Jehovah as an abomination in His sight. "There shall not be found among you a witch or a charmer or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a medium or a necromancer, for all that do these things are an abomination unto the Lord." — Deuteronomy 18:10, 12.
Saul, the first king of Israel, had a seance with a medium who pretended to call up Samuel similar to what the eminent witnesses above mentioned have related in modern times. (See 1 Samuel 28:7-20.) Samuel was a good prophet. He died. Saul, the king of Israel, became evil and God withdrew His favor from him. The king then directed his servants to find him a witch or spiritualistic medium with whom to consult He was directed to the witch living in the cave at Endor. Knowing that it was his duty to put to death all such mediums, as provided by the Law; and knowing that if she recognized him as the king of Israel she would not operate for him, fie disguised himself and then went to the cave to see her. Evidently the demons revealed to this medium that the man who stood before her was. the king of Israel, and horrified, she exclaimed, "Why hast thou come to take my life?" Saul then admitted to her that he was the king but promised to preserve her life if she would obey him and call up Samuel, the dead prophet. The seance then took place. The demons caused to pass before her mind a vision of a man rising from the earth and the witch cried out; and being inquired of by Saul as to what she saw, she said she beheld an old man rising, wearing a mantle, the description being like that of Samuel the prophet. Saul fell prone upon the earth and then the medium proceeded to tell him that the message from Samuel was that on the morrow he should engage in battle with the Philistines, that he would be defeated and that the king and his sons would be killed.
Sir Conan Doyle in his testimony states, "Some mediums like Eusapia Palladino may be guilty of trickery." The demons played a trick on the witch of Endor and on Saul on this occasion and lied to both of them. Samuel was dead and therefore could not arise. History discloses the fact that the battle between Saul and the Philistines did not take place the next day but several days afterward and that all of his sons were not killed, but that two of them survived and lived for years.
From the days of the flood until now these evil spirits or demons have been unable to communicate with any one who was unwilling to submit to their
influence; and this explains why, in the incident above recorded, Mr. A was requested to remain quiet, not to resist with his will, but be willing to be taught and to concentrate his mind upon the one with whom he would like to speak.
When Jesus was on earth these demons possessed human beings, operated through mediums, and Jesus cast them out. — See Matthews 9:32, 33; 10:8; 12:22; Mark 5:1-20; 9:17-27; Luke 9:38-42.
These demons have minds superior to human minds and doubtless are perfect in memory. Having existed since the time of the flood, they are familiar with the events of earth and, this explains why one such could impersonate a human being who has been dead a long while. Sir Conan Doyle cites the instance of one who named himself Man-ton and who is said to have died in 1677 and who was Oliver Cromwell's chaplain. It is an easy matter for a demon familiar with the life of Cromwell and those living at his time to come forward and produce such evidence and thus overreach a mind that is willing to be convinced.
Mr. A above mentioned did not hear the voice of his father but he heard the voice of one of these demons, who being familiar with his father's life and history was able to produce facts having a tendency to convince the son that his father was still living; and the son, being ignorant of who these demons are, fell a ready victim to the delusion that his father yet lives.
But why, one asks, should such eminent professors as Sir Conan Doyle, Sir Oliver Lodge, Prof. Hyslop and other great and wise men be overreached by these demons. It might seem probable, says such a one, that a weak-minded person would be overreached, but it seems rather unreasonable that such great men should be mistaken. We answer that the greatest man that has lived is not equal intellectually to these spirit beings who are restrained in darkness. God foreknew and through His prophets foretold that these men, wise in their own conceits and in the eyes of others, would advance such argument in the times in which we are living, deceiving others and being deceived. Long ago He caused His holy prophet to record the words which subsequently St. Paul quoted: "For it is written [Isaiah 29:14], I will destroy the wisdom of the wise and I will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? For after that in the wisdom of God the world knew not God." (1 Corinthians 1:19-21.) Does it not really seem
foolish to sensible men who believe in the Scriptures for these great wise men to say, "Christianity must change or must perish?" In other words, they are stating that the great plan of redemption provided by Jehovah must yield to their increased wisdom and if it does not so yield then it must perish.
But, asks another, why should we attempt to deny the power to communicate with the dead when we get much consolation from the fact of talking with our dead friends? And if your contention is correct that it is the demons communicating, what purpose or motive would they have in impersonating people who had been dead for some time?
The answer to these questions is the real kernel of the nut, so to speak. There never was a crime committed except there was a motive back of it. The so-called communication of dead people with the living is a crime upon humanity because it blinds them to God's great purpose. The real motive is to keep the people in ignorance and in darkness concerning the provision that God has made for the salvation and blessing of mankind.
God said to man, "Ye shall surely die"; and Satan said, "Ye shall not surely die." Satan lied. Satan has ever opposed Jehovah's purposes and Jehovah has permitted him to do this for the purpose of teaching mankind a great lesson and magnifying His own (Jehovah's) power in due time. The great plan of redemption provided by Jehovah will become operative through Christ and His chosen bride. To Abraham Jehovah said, "In thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." This was the seed of promise and it is the seed against which Satan has warred at all times. St. Paul plainly points out that the seed of promise is the Christ — Jesus the head and the faithful members of His body who continue to follow Him even unto death and participate in the first resurrection. When this promise was made to Abraham, Satan sought to have Sarah, his wife, debauched that the seed would be destroyed. When the promise was passed down to David, Satan attempted to have David killed.
When Jesus came to earth, recognizing that He was the promised seed, Satan sought to kill him and ultimately succeeded, through his agencies; but God raised Him from the dead and exalted Him above all others, making Him head over the Church, His body. Satan and the demons have warred against the Church and against Christ Jesus all through the Age. They have sought to destroy true Christianity and now the wise men boldly say, "Christianity must yield to the further deception of Satan or be destroyed. How many will be fooled? Jesus said
all except the elect, and if it were possible he would deceive the very elect.
Above we quoted the Scripture that there is no other name given under heaven whereby we must be saved except the name of Christ Jesus. The testimony of the eminent witness Sir Conan Doyle is to the effect that too much stress is laid on the death of Christ Jesus. He is a very prominent man and he and the other professors named have a wide influence over the people and the public press is open to these influential men now to influence the people; and thus Satan is blinding these great men and is blinding those who yield to them, including a large number of clergymen, just as the Apostle said it would be (2 Corinthians 4:3, 4). If the people can be thoroughly convinced that their dead friends are alive and not dead, then they will believe that man did not fall; that there was no necessity for a redeemer; that Jesus Christ did not die to save them; that there is no resurrection of the dead; and thus Satan and the demons would succeed in destroying the faith of the people in God's great plan of redemption. It is easy, therefore, to be seen that one of the greatest menaces to the human race to-day, the strongest delusion, and that which threatens to destroy the very foundation of faith in God's Word and plan, is the deception held before the people that the living can communicate with the dead.
From the Scriptures above cited (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6) we have seen that these demons were to be restrained in darkness until the judgment day. The clear inference to be drawn from this is that when the judgment day is reached they would be able to exercise greater power than ever before because they would be in a measure at least released from their restraint. Other Scriptures clearly and conclusively prove that we are in the time of the judgment upon the nations and upon Christendom, and that this is also the time of the judgment of the evil spirits, the demons: This explains why the great war which has just ended was used as a means of inducing more people to turn to spiritism. The great war was foretold by the Lord Jesus as the time when "nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom," and that this would be one of the evidences of the end of the old order of things just preceding the inauguration of the new order, which is the Golden Age. The Great Master stated that a further evidence of that time would be that this war would be followed by general social disturbance, revolutions and like trouble throughout the earth; and we now see that in progress. As an additional evidence that we are at the end of the old
order and the time for the beginning of the new, which will bring in the Golden Age, Jesus said, "But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be" (Matthew 24:37). It will be remembered, referring to the Scriptural account of Noah's day, that the demons then had overreached and debauched practically all of the human race and the people were indifferent to the preachings of Noah and they were going about pursuing that which would gratify their desires. They had disregarded God and His Word and we see exactly the same thing now prevailing; and it is being brought about chiefly through the ministration of the demons who did it in Noah's day. We warn the people, therefore, to be not deceived by the testimony of wise men, but to turn their attention to a careful and faithful study of the Bible, which only contains the pure doctrine with reference to God's provision for the salvation and blessing of mankind.
The above Scriptural proof adduced, therefore, conclusively shows that the dead are dead and are not conscious; that the living cannot communicate with the dead; and the testimony of the eminent wise men is fully and conclusively explained by the Scriptures, which show that in the time in which we are now living the demons would exercise greater power, deceiving the minds of many, inducing them to believe that their dead friends are alive and by thus pretending fraudulently to bring them a measure of comfort are in fact deceiving them and driving them away from God's great arrangement for their own salvation.
The result of this delusion win be in a short time still greater confusion, in fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy, "For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time; no, nor ever shall be." — Matthew 24:21.
This time of great stress, however, will be followed by the reign of Christ, introducing the Golden Age, during which all blindness of mind and confusion will be removed and during which time the knowledge of the Lord shall fill the whole earth as the waters fill the deep, and every one will be brought to a knowledge of the Truth and in that time all the dead shall be awakened out of death and being brought to an accurate knowledge of the Truth (1 Timothy 2:3-6), will learn that Jesus Christ gave His life a ransom for all and that in due time the testimony will be given to all, and all Witt understand. And those who do understand and obey the Lord will be blessed by being lifted up to perfection of body and mind and united with their friends to enjoy everlastingly peace, prosperity and happiness.
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