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CHAPTER VI

String 5: The Ransom





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THE great ransom sacrifice is the most vital to man of the strings upon the harp of God, because without it no real lasting joy could be had by mankind. In due time its benefits shall result to the entire human race; and all who appreciate it will sing aloud and rejoice with exceeding joy. They will have melody in their hearts and upon their lips because of this wonderful provision made by Jehovah for man's benefit. For thousands of years divine wisdom has been working out his plan concerning man; and the ransom sacrifice is the very pivotal part of that plan. Its importance can not be overstated. It is the gateway that leads to life and happiness. It is the means of bringing back man into harmony with God. To appreciate this great doctrine we must understand it. Therefore let us reason together in the light of the divine Word, that we may understand.
178 The most precious thing possessed by any creature is life, because without life everything else would be useless and could not be enjoyed. Even now we observe that a man with but a small spark of life clings to that with desperation. It is only when a creature is perfect and enjoying complete life and the right to it that he can properly glorify Jehovah, his great Creator. God's great arrangement must ultimately bring glory to his name.
179 Jehovah created Adam, the first man, in his own image and likeness. He created him perfect; for all the
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works of Jehovah are perfect. (Deuteronomy 32:4) He gave to man life and the right to life. Life means any conscious existence. Right to life means the full authority to maintain existence. Adam and Eve in Eden were perfect in their bodies, without pain, without sorrow; and were beautiful creatures. They had not a scar nor a mark upon them anywhere. They enjoyed life and all the blessings incident to that life. Their home was perfect; and even all the animals and birds of Eden were subject to them, and they had absolute dominion and control. God gave them all these privileges to enjoy eternally, upon one expressed condition, namely, that they be obedient to his law and thereby honor him. He informed man that a violation of this law would bring upon him loss of life, loss of the right to life, loss of all the blessings incident to it.
180 Satan induced mother Eve to believe that God was keeping back something from them and, therefore deceiving Eve, induced her to violate the law. There was no real wrong in the fruit which Eve ate. The wrong was in disobeying the Lord. When Adam found that she had violated God's law, knowing that she must die he preferred to be with her in death rather than to be separated from her; so he also became a party to the transgression by voluntarily and willingly violating the law of God. Jehovah, in the exercise of his perfect justice, sentenced man to death. This sentence deprived Adam and Eve of the right to life. They were driven out of Eden and in due time they lost life itself. For 930 years they were compelled to go about in the earth and earn their bread by digging in the soil and partaking of such food as they produced, which was imperfect and poisonous. In this manner they were put to death.
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181 This sentence of death passed upon Adam had an indirect effect upon his offspring. Before he was driven from Eden he and Eve had not exercised the authority given to them by Jehovah to beget and bring forth children on the earth. This they did exercise after being driven from Eden. Being now under the sentence of death and undergoing that death penalty, it was impossible for their children, born under such conditions, to come into existence perfect. It would follow, then, that when the children were born, while they would have a measure of life and the rights incident to that measure of life (and these we call "life rights" as distinguished from right to live), they would have no right to life, because Adam having no right to life could not bring children into the world who would have greater right than he had.
182 Any human being that is living possesses the right to food, air, light and certain privileges in society; and these are called life rights; that is to say, they are incident to animation, privileges belonging to creatures that live in any measure. The right to live, then, means a just right of existence which can not be properly taken away.
183 Because the parents possessed no right to life, every child born into the world from then until now has been born imperfect, unrighteous, a sinner, disapproved in God's sight, under condemnation, and therefore with no right to life. The life that any of us has lived has been merely by permission; and all who have died have died justly; for nothing but a perfect creature is entitled to life. For this reason the prophet wrote: "Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me." (Psalm 51: 5) Paul writing under inspiration, expressed the
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same thing, saying: "Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for all have sinned." — Romans 5:12.
184 All the human race, then, from Adam until now, having been born imperfect, it follows that if any ever get full life and the right to life he must get it through the loving Jehovah God. Unless God had made some provision for the redemption of man from death and the lifting up of him again to the condition of life, the time would come when there would be no people on the earth. We remember that Adam lived 930 years; and now a man scarcely lives to be half a century old. The race has been degenerating for centuries, growing weaker and weaker, and ultimately all would come to that condition in which they would be unable to transmit even the spark of life, and the earth would be depopulated. Hence we see our utter dependence upon God; and if we find the great Jehovah has made a provision for us to live, that ought to fill our hearts with gratitude; and as we further examine his great plan it should fill our hearts with boundless love for him. And surely that provision would bring joy to the heart and enable one to see that such provision constitutes one of the strings upon the great harp of God.

REDEMPTION FORESHADOWED

185 At the time that Jehovah entered the judgment or sentence against man he vaguely hinted at a time coming when man should be released from that judgment. Satan, one of whose names is "the old serpent", was the first inducing cause of sin. And God at that time said to him: "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her
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seed; it shall bruise thy head." (Genesis 3:15) This foreshadowed the fact that ultimately Satan should be destroyed and that the same would result as a blessing to man.
186 But we must remember that the judgment of God entered against man must stand for ever. It could not be reversed or set aside or annulled, for the reason that Jehovah can not deny himself. Nor could any of his creatures have faith in him if he changed his mind. While it is true that this judgment must stand for ever, it is equally true that God could make a consistent provision for having the terms of the judgment met by another, equal to Adam; and this is exactly what we find the Scriptures to disclose that he did.
187 Jehovah desired that man should understand the necessity and reason for providing redemption, that when man does understand it he will rejoice in the loving-kindness manifested by God toward him. For this reason God caused certain pictures or types to be made by his people.
188 On the night that Jehovah led the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt he caused a lamb to be slain and its blood sprinkled upon the doorposts of the house and the people to eat that lamb, and arranged that at midnight the death angel would pass through and smite the first-born of every house where the blood did not appear upon the doorposts. The first-born here pictured the church, about which we shall see later, and which first must be saved before the blessing can come to the world in general. The lamb pictured the one who should be the ransomer, or redeemer, of mankind. The blood pictured the life poured out to provide a redemptive price. — Exodus 12:3-17.
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189 When Jesus appeared, at the age of thirty years, John the Baptist pointing to him said: "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29) And we read in the Bible concerning Jesus, that he is "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world". (Revelation 13:8) These scriptures and others show that the sacrifice of the lamb foreshadowed the sacrifice of the great One who should become the redeemer of mankind and take away the sin of the world.
190 A few days after this passover in Egypt, the Israelites were all delivered when God commanded Moses to smite the waters of the Red Sea and they passed over on dry land; and when the Egyptians attempted to follow they were swallowed up in the sea and drowned. The deliverance of Israel here pictured the deliverance from the great enemy, Satan and death, of all the human race that will ultimately be obedient to God's holy will.
191 After the children of Israel were on the other side of the Red Sea, they marched on in the desert; and when they came to Mount Sinai God confirmed with them a covenant, which is known in the Bible as the law covenant. In connection with this covenant animals were sacrificed. This covenant was instituted at the hands of Moses as a mediator. Moses here was a type of Christ Jesus, who in due time will inaugurate the covenant on behalf of all mankind for their deliverance.
192 In connection with the law given to the Israelites at this time, God instructed Moses to erect in the wilderness a tabernacle, which was to be used by the Israelites in connection with their ceremonies of sacrifice. One day of each year was known as the atonement day, and what was done on that day partic-
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ularly foreshadowed the great sin-offering to be made on behalf of mankind.
193 The tabernacle was constructed of two parts. It was 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, and 15 feet high, built of boards and then covered over with a tent of three thicknesses of material. The first division of the tabernacle was called the Holy. It was 15 feet wide and 30 feet long. The second or rear apartment was known as the Most Holy, it being 15 feet long, 15 feet wide, and 15 feet high, an exact cube. The tabernacle was situated inside of a court or yard, which court was 75 feet wide and 150 feet in length. The fence enclosing this court was made of linen curtains, suspended from hooks which were fastened on wooden posts, the posts being set in copper sockets at the base.
194 On the atonement day the high priest took a bullock, which must be without spot or blemish. Inside of the court he killed the bullock, took its blood in a vessel, went from the court into the Holy and from there into the Most Holy, and sprinkled the blood upon the mercy seat, which was in the Most Holy. Then he went back and slew a male goat, which likewise must be without defect, and did the same thing with its blood. This was known as the atonement sacrifice. (See Leviticus 16:1-34.) It was an offering for sin, made for the people of Israel, but in fact foreshadowing the great sin-offering that is to take away the sin of the world.
195 Paul plainly tells us that the things here done foreshadowed better things to come. (Hebrews 10:1) God required in the law that the Jews should keep this day of atonement and offer these sacrifices through the high priest once each year. We remember that God had promised to Abraham: "In thy seed shall all families of the earth be blessed." So
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Paul says that the law "was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator"; and that the law was a schoolmaster to bring the people unto Christ. (Galatians 3:19, 24) In other words, Jehovah was teaching the children of Israel concerning the great sin-offering that must be made on behalf of mankind and he was using them to make living pictures; and the record of the events concerning them has enabled all students of the Bible since to see how Jehovah foreshadowed the redemption and deliverance of mankind from the bondage of sin and death. To foreshadow means to foretell something coming; and this shows how important the great ransom is to mankind, that God would take so much time and go into so much detail to teach the people by these pictures. Hence this should encourage us to study the subject earnestly that we might see, understand, and appreciate it.

RANSOM PROMISED

196 Adam was sentenced to death, and when he actually went into death after 930 years, justice was satisfied. The law demanded the life of a perfect human being. It had received it when Adam died. Between the time of Adam's sentence and the time of his death he begat many children that were born into the earth. These, being born imperfect, had no right to life; hence the living of the children was only by permission of Jehovah, and every one who died, died because of imperfection resulting from the sin of father Adam.
197 The Scriptures clearly show that God planned long in advance for the redemption and deliverance of the human race. Hence his wisdom led him to em-
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brace in the effects of this death sentence all of the human family, all of the offspring of Adam, so that in due time he might redeem them all through the sacrifice of one. (Galatians 3:22) The sentence against Adam and the resulting effects upon all of his offspring must stand. An earthly court may reverse its judgment because imperfect, but God can not reverse his, because it is perfect; and he can not deny himself. He could make provision, however, for another man exactly equivalent to Adam to go into death voluntarily; and by thus dying his life could be given as a corresponding price for Adam and his offspring, that Adam and his offspring might be released from death and given a trial for life. The Scriptures definitely show that it was God's purpose and intention from the beginning to make just such a provision. He made a specific promise to this effect when he said: "I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; 0 grave, I will be thy destruction." (Hosea 13:14) This promise of Jehovah to ransom the human race must be carried out, because God is unchangeable. Having made the promise, he will perform it. — Malachi 3:6; Jas. 1:17.
198 It is very important, then, that we understand the meaning of ransom; hence we here define it. Ransom means something to loosen with; that is, a redemptive price. It is the means or price or value which can be used in loosening or releasing something that is in bondage or in restraint or imprisoned. Necessarily the ransom price must be exactly equivalent to, or corresponding with, that which justice requires of the thing or being that is in bondage or imprisonment. Hence we say that ransom means an exact corresponding price. A perfect man sinned and
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was sentenced to death; hence an exact corresponding price would be the death of another perfect man and the value of that life presented in place of the one who first sinned and was held in bondage. 199 Sin-offering means the presentation and use of the ransom price. On the atonement day performed by the Jews in type, the blood of the bullock represented the poured-out life; and therefore it stood for the ransom price or value of the life. The carrying of the blood into the Most Holy and sprinkling it there pictured the sin-offering, that is, a presentation in the Most Holy (which represented heaven itself) of the value or merit of the perfect life. We will see, therefore, as we examine this question that the ransom price was provided on earth by the death of Jesus; that preparation for the sin-offering was begun on earth, but must be finished in heaven, where the value of the ransom price is presented.
200 other scriptures show that it was intended by Jehovah that the great Redeemer should pour out his life in death and that this should constitute the ransom price, which should be made an offering for sin. God foretold this, which is equivalent to a promise, through his prophet when he wrote concerning the great coming Redeemer the following:
201 "Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows: yet we
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did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted; yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken. And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." — Isaiah 53.
202 Because of this death sentence standing against Adam, he was and is held in death. He and his offspring who have died are in the grave spoken of by the prophet. — Job 17:13; 3:18.
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QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED

203 The dead could never again live, nor could those who are living ever hope to have eternal happiness unless the disability resting upon mankind because of sin be first removed; and the Scripture is quite clear, as above noticed, that this can be removed only by means of the great ransom sacrifice. Since ransom means an exact corresponding price, the ransomer must be exactly like the perfect Adam in Eden.
204 A perfect man had sinned and lost everything; therefore none but a perfect man could provide a price sufficient to buy and release Adam and his race from this sentence of death and its effects. Divine justice demanded the life of a perfect human being and this was received when Adam went into death. It followed that divine justice would accept nothing more or less, as a price for releasing Adam and his offspring, than a perfect human life. In order to meet these divine requirements, the ransomer must be a perfect human being.
205 When God gave the law to Israel at Mount Sinai he indicated by the promise of that law that the only means by which the human race could be redeemed or ransomed would be by the giving of a perfect human life in the place of Adam's perfect human life, which he had forfeited by his disobedience. We remember that Paul said that this law was a shadow of better things to come. That law required an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a foot for a foot, a life for a life; that is to say, a price exactly corresponding to that which had been lost. As an illustration: Under the law if one man knocked out another's tooth, he must lose one of his own teeth. If he struck out a man's eye, he must give up his own eye. If he took the life of his fellow creature,
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he must give up his own life. Thus the law pictured that the great ransomer would correspond exactly with the perfect man Adam when Adam was in Eden. — Exodus 21:23-25; Leviticus 24:17-21; Deuteronomy 19:21.

MAN'S EXTREMITY

206 But who in all the world was able to bear this burden or meet the requirements of the divine law? Adam could not redeem himself. All of his offspring were imperfect and God could not accept an imperfect human being as a ransom. Was there nobody, then, on earth who could redeem the human race from death according to God's promise? The prophet of the Lord answers: "None of them [no creature on earth] can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him." (Psalm 49:7) For this reason, then, it seemed hopeless for man ever to expect to be released from the condition of death.
207 Furthermore, this judgment and sentence against Adam was entered in the divine court of heaven and it follows that the ransom price, namely, the value of a perfect human life, must not only be provided by the death of a perfect human being, but the value of that life must be presented to divine justice in heaven itself; and no human being has access to heaven.
208 Hence there were two reasons why it was utterly impossible for any of Adam's stock or offspring to redeem mankind: (1) Because all were imperfect and could not provide the price; and (2) if the price were provided, it could not be presented in heaven by any such.
209 Thus is presented to the human race a condition of absolute helplessness. Thus we see that mankind was wholly without power to release itself from the
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condition of death, and that there never could be any hope of any one of the human family enjoying life everlasting in a state of happiness unless God, in the exercise of his loving-kindness, should make some provision. He had promised to make such provision. His great plan provided for such. It is first necessary, however, for us to see man's absolute extremity in order that we may appreciate God's opportunity for blessing mankind, and the great debt which the human race owes to Jehovah and his beloved Son for the provision made.
210 If a man found himself and his family in a dungeon and a million dollars were required to release him, and he had not one penny, but a friend of his appeared and provided the money and released him and his family, that man would owe a great debt of gratitude to his deliverer. He would feel much gratitude in his heart. He would surely love his deliverer and would be anxious to do anything he could for him. Adam and all of his family are either in the condition of death or under the effects of death; and if we find that the great Jehovah God has made provision for the release and deliverance of all such from the tomb, with a view to granting them everlasting life, liberty, and happiness, then such fact should bring joy to the heart of every one who learns of it.

THE GREAT RANSOMER

211 The Apostle Paul, having in mind these things, wrote: " We were children in bondage under the elements of the world: but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law." (Galatians 4:3,4) How did God send his Son? Since a perfect man had sinned and the life of a perfect man must be given as a
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sin-offering, it is now important to see if the Son of God whom he sent was qualified to meet the requirements of the law and be the ransomer or redeemer.
212 It is easy to be seen that Jesus when on earth could not have been merely an incarnated spirit being, because that would constitute a fraud, and God would not sanction anything wrong. He must be a man, perfect in every respect, equal and corresponding to the perfect Adam while in Eden. It is also easy to be seen that Jesus could not be part God and part man, because that would be more than the law required; hence divine justice could not accept such as a ransom. The divine law definitely shows that the ransomer must be exactly corresponding to Adam, a perfect human being. How, then, did God send his Son? And when he sent him, was he part man and part God?
213 The scriptures answer, as we have heretofore seen, that prior to his coming to earth he was the Logos, a spirit being; that his life was transferred to the human plane and he was born a human being. He was rich and for our sakes became poor (2 Corinthians 8:9); that is to say, he was rich in heavenly glory and power possessed by him as the great active agent of Jehovah in the creation of all things, and he became poor by becoming a man. It was absolutely necessary for him to be a perfect man; hence he must be born holy, harmless, separate from sinners and without sin; and he met this requirement. (Hebrews 7: 26) Furthermore, he met the requirements because he was made flesh and dwelt amongst men. (John 1:14) He partook of flesh and blood, became a human being for the very purpose of destroying him that has the power of death, that is the Devil, and to deliver mankind. (Hebrews 2:14,15) He took up-
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on himself the form of a servant or bondsman and was made in the likeness of men. (Philippians 2:7) He was the only perfect man that has ever lived on earth, except Adam. He was not part human and part spirit being, because "he was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death". Angels are spirit beings, and thus creatures that are lower than angels are human beings. He was human. Had he been part God and part man he would have been higher than the angels instead of lower, for the reason that angels are the lowest order of spirit beings.
214 Being a perfect man, he had the power to produce a perfect race of people and with these populate the earth; therefore in every respect exactly corresponding to the perfect man Adam in the condition he was in while in Eden. He was perfect in every respect, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14) When he stood before Pilate, silent as a sheep is dumb before its shearers, when the mob incited by the Jewish clergy of that time were demanding his life-blood, Pilate, in order that he might shame the Jews for such action, cried out unto them: "Behold the man." The emphasis here is on the word the. We might paraphrase Pilate's words thus: 'The man whom you are asking me to put to death is not only the greatest man among you, but he is the man above all other men on earth.' The people there had seen a perfect man. None of us have seen a perfect man. He was the only one who has ever lived on earth qualified to become the redeemer of mankind. He was sent to earth by Jehovah for that very purpose. Under the law that God gave to the Jews a man must be thirty years of age before he had reached his legal majority, that he might qualify as a priest.
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215 We note that Jesus grew from boyhood to manhood's estate, and when he was thirty years of age he presented himself to John at Jordan to be baptized. At the age of thirty, then, he was perfect in body, perfect in mind, perfect under the law, in every respect an absolutely perfect human being; hence qualified to be the ransomer or redeemer of Adam, the perfect man, and of all Adam's offspring.
216 Why did God send his beloved Son, this great Man, to earth? When a great man of the world comes into prominence he expects others to minister unto him, and they do minister unto him. But Jesus, the greatest man who has ever lived on earth, and the only perfect one aside from Adam, came to earth and became the servant of others, that he might render the greatest good to mankind. True greatness consists in doing good unto others. True greatness is magnified in Jesus. He was the truest friend of the human race. He said: "The Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28) And again he said: "Whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister [servant]: and whosoever will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all." — Mark 10:43,44.
217 The perfect man Jesus became the servant of all. The importance of Jesus and his work is magnified when we consider that he in heaven and in earth was the dearest treasure to Jehovah's heart. He was God's dearly beloved Son. He was the most precious thing possessed by the great Creator, Jehovah. It was the supreme sacrifice on behalf of Jehovah to use him to redeem the human race. It was God's great love for fallen humanity that prompted him to do this; hence we read: "God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever be-
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lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved." — John 3:16,17.
218 It was this truly good and truly great Man who for three and a half years went about in the earth and taught and ministered unto the people and did good unto every one and evil unto none. All the time he was thus ministering and doing good, the scribes, Pharisees, doctors of the law and other dupes engaged in misrepresenting and persecuting the Lord, sought to kill him. Why did they do this? Because they were instruments of Satan, the Devil. — John 8:44.
219 Jesus, the Devil knew, was and is the great Seed of promise which God had promised to Abraham should be the redeemer and blesser of mankind. Jesus Christ is the Seed of the woman foreshadowed in God's statement made to mother Eve and Satan. (Genesis 3:15) Satan sought, therefore, in every way to destroy him. Jesus was teaching the Jews the message of God to lead them in the right way, and to open unto them the way of life. These scribes and Pharisees were opposing him and therefore were the enemies of the people. Jesus said of them: "The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat" (Matthew 23:2); meaning that they had assumed the position of leaders of the people. Because of their blinding the people he said to them: 'You are hypocrites, blind guides, fools; you shut up the kingdom of heaven against men; you devour widows' houses and for a pretence make long prayers; you compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, you make him twofold more the child of gehenna than yourselves. You are guilty of fraud and deceit, and you are like unto whited sepulchres,
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which are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness; you are serpents, a generation of vipers. You do not understand my speech because you can not hear and understand my word. You are of your father the Devil. ' — Matthew 23:13-33; John 8: 43,44.
220 Jesus knew that he was to be crucified and he told his disciples of his coming death. The last night he was on earth with them he spent teaching them great lessons and truths which were not only a blessing to them, but have been a great blessing to every one from then until now who has loved the Lord and sought to know and do his will. While he was thus doing, the enemy was preparing to take his life. The Sanhedrin was a high tribunal or court composed of seventy-three men, made up of priests, elders, and doctors of the law, Pharisaical hypocrites, the seed of the serpent, blinded to God's purposes. That body was the highest court of Israel and it was the duty of this court to protect the innocent as well as to punish the guilty. They beheld Jesus doing good and the people flocking to him.
221 "Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council [a court], and said, What do ye? for this man doeth many miracles. If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation. And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation. Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death." — John 11:47-51, 53.
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222 In other words, this supreme tribunal secretly met, indicted Jesus, prejudged his case, and agreed to put him to death, only waiting for an opportunity. They acted as grand jury, prosecutor, and trial court. They entered into a wicked conspiracy, which was formulated by Satan, their father, for the destruction of the Son of God. They conspired with Judas and hired him, for the paltry sum of thirty pieces of silver, to betray the Lord into their hands. Satan himself entered into Judas as the latter executed the betrayal. Then they organized a mob, sent it out after the Master, arrested him, and brought him before this supreme court for trial at night, which was contrary to their own laws. "They that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled," in furtherance of the wicked conspiracy. — Matt. 26: 57.
223 The meek and defenseless Lamb of God was led into a den of ravenous wolves, who were thirsting for his blood. They did not dignify his case by even filing a formal charge against him. They sought, contrary to the law, to make him testify against himself. They knew nothing themselves against him; and notwithstanding they sat as the high and dignified court of the nation of Israel, they resorted to subornation of perjury. "Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council [the entire court], sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; but found none: yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last came two false witnesses." (Matthew 26: 59, 60) This exalted tribunal, in violation of every law and every precedent known to Jewish jurisprudence, demanded of Jesus that he testify against himself. "The high priest arose, and said unto him, ... I adjure thee by the living God,
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that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God." (Matthew 26:62,63) And when he told the truth, saying, "Ye say that I am," they said, "What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth." (Luke 22: 66-71) They immediately voted that he should die, also contrary to their law, which required that each member of the court should consider the case and then vote individually. Holding the session of court at night to convict him, they knew they were proceeding contrary to law; so they convened the court the following morning to ratify the sentence, which was likewise contrary to law.
224 They condemned Jesus to death, but knew they had no legal power to put him to death. Then they led him before the Roman governor, Pilate, and placed against him the charge of sedition, saying, "We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King." (Luke 23:1,2) They knew the Roman governor had power to put Jesus to death, and for this reason they sought his judgment.
225 Pilate was not convinced of Jesus' guilt and was not willing that he should die, but sought to release him. "Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man. And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people." (Luke 23:4, 5) When Pilate sought to release him, his accusers "cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar", against the civil power, and such is therefore guilty of sedition. (John 19:12) "And he [Pilate] said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I
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will therefore chastise him, and let him go. And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might [be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. And Pilate gave sentence that it; should be as they required." (Luke 23:22-24) Thus the civil power yielded to the importunities of ecclesiasticism, and Jesus was led away and crucified on Calvary's hill. And Pilate, more righteous than the clerics, posted over his cross the sign: "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews."
226 Thus died the Son of God, the great antitypical "Lamb . . . which taketh away the sin of the world". (John 1:29) In the eyes of those that stood by he died as a sinner, crucified between two thieves, under the charge of disloyalty to the constituted powers, yet wholly innocent, harmless, and without sin.
227 Here he fulfilled that which the prophet of God had foretold of him long in advance, in that he "poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many". — Isaiah 53:12.

WHY MUST HE DIE?

228 But why should the great, the good, the pure, the sinless Man die in such an ignominious manner as this? Was there no other means whereby man could live? The Scriptures answer that there is no other way whereby man could get life. Divine justice demanded the life of the perfect man Adam and took that life. Divine justice could receive nothing as a substitute for Adam except the life of a perfect human being. Adam was put to death because he was a sinner. The one who would redeem Adam must die as a sinner, yet without sin. And all this Jesus did.
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229 It is important here for us to see why Jesus came to earth, grew to manhood's estate and died. The prophet, speaking the words of Jesus beforehand, said: "Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, I delight to do thy will, 0 my God: yea, thy law is within my heart." (Psalm 40: 7, 8; Hebrews 10:7-10) Thus we see that he had come to do God's will. The Apostle Paul expressed the will of God concerning mankind when he said: "God . . . desires all men to be saved [from death], and to come to an accurate knowledge of the truth." (1 Timothy 2:3,4, Diaglott) This is in harmony with God's promise that he would redeem mankind from death (Hosea 13:14); and since Jesus came to carry out the Father's will to ransom the human race, he must do this. This is the only means whereby man could live. Therefore Jesus said: "I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly." — John 10:10.
230 Jesus likened his humanity to bread. He said: "I am that bread of life. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven that a man may eat thereof, and not die. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. As the living Father sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me." (John 6:48, 50, 55, 57) By this we understand that Jesus gave up his human life in order that the value thereof might be presented to divine justice in heaven as the great ransom price. To eat means to partake of food to satisfy hunger. He who hungers for righteousness and partakes of the value of Jesus' sacrifice by believing on the Lord Jesus Christ and doing the Father's will, that one will have life and thus will satisfy his hunger. The
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Apostle Paul makes it clear that the death, of Jesus was for the benefit of the entire human race when he says: 'Jesus, ... by the grace of God, tasted death for every man.' "There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time."  — Hebrews 2: 9; 1 Timothy 2:5, 6.
231 "Sin is the transgression of the law." (1 John 3:4) "The wages of sin is death." (Romans 6:23) Adam transgressed the divine law and for this reason suffered the penalty of death, and this penalty came upon all mankind by inheritance. Jesus the perfect man permitted his life to be taken that it might be used for the purpose of releasing Adam and his offspring from the great enemy death, and that they might have a full opportunity for life. Hence his life was made an offering for sin, or a sin-offering.
232 For many centuries Jehovah foreshadowed this great event in his plan, and this adds to the importance of it; in fact, without the sacrifice of Jesus it would have been impossible for any of the human race ever to live at all.
233 Looking back, then, at the picture that Jehovah made by the use of the Jewish people and their ceremonies, we see that the bullock slain on the atonement day pictured Jesus the perfect man at the age of thirty years. The court surrounding the tabernacle was a picture of perfect humanity. Therefore the bullock slain in the court foreshadowed or pictured the fact that the perfect man Jesus died in that condition on earth as a perfect man. By his death he provided the ransom price. He did this to carry out the Father's plan.
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234 In the picture, the slaying of the bullock was the beginning of the sin-offering. After the bullock was slain its blood was put into a vessel and the high priest carried it in this vessel, ultimately reaching the Most Holy, where it was sprinkled, as aforementioned. The high priest in the Holy pictured Jesus during the three and one-half years of his sacrificial ministry; and the high priest's appearance in the Most Holy pictures Jesus the high priest, resurrected to the divine nature, appearing in heaven itself in the presence of God, there to present the merit of his sacrifice as the sin-offering on behalf of mankind.  — Hebrews 9:24.
235 The Scriptures clearly show that Jesus was the antitypical bullock and was made an offering for sin on behalf of mankind; first on behalf of the church, subsequently on behalf of the whole world. "Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures" (1 Corinthians 15: 3); "who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father" (Galatians 1:4); "for he hath made him to be sin [an offering for sin] for us, who [Jesus] knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." — 2 Corinthians 5:21.
236 The law that God gave to the Israelites merely foreshadowed what great things Jesus would do. Because of the imperfections of mankind, Moses and others, that law could not accomplish the deliverance of mankind from death. "For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh." — Romans 8:3.
237 In the type, the slaying of the bullock and the carrying of its blood into the Holy as a typical sin-
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offering foreshadowed the fact that the redemption of man's sins could be accomplished only through the blood of the perfect sacrifice. And for this reason, says the Apostle Paul, "Without the shedding of blood is no remission. It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these." (Hebrews 9: 22,23) The patterns here referred to are the Holy and the Most Holy in the tabernacle picture, which foreshadowed or pictured the heavenly condition; and the entrance of the high priest into the Most Holy of the tabernacle with the blood foreshadowed Christ Jesus entering heaven. "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us." — Hebrews 9: 24.
238 When Jesus died upon the cross of Calvary he provided the ransom price, because his was the death of a perfect human being, exactly corresponding with the perfect man Adam. Adam's death, however, was the result of a forfeited right to live. Jesus' death was a sacrifice. Adam was a sinner and died a sinner. Jesus was perfect, holy, and without sin; and while he died in the same manner, yet by his death he did not forfeit the right to live as a human being. By dying he reduced his perfect human life to an asset that might thereafter be used to release Adam and his offspring from death.
239 We here give an illustration to aid in understanding this point. For convenience we will call a man John. John is languishing in prison because he can not pay a fine of one hundred dollars. He has a brother named Charles who is willing to pay the fine for his brother John, but who has no money with
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which to pay. Charles is strong and vigorous, has time to work, is willing to work, and can earn money by working; but his strength and time and willingness will not pay the debt for John. Mr. Smith has some work to be done and is willing to pay money to have it done. Charles engages himself to work for Mr. Smith and earns one hundred dollars and receives that amount of money in cash. By his labor Charles has here reduced his time and strength and vigor to a money value and has received that money value, which money has purchasing power and which can be used to pay John's obligation and thus release him from prison.
240 Charles then appears before the court which has entered the judgment against his brother John, and offers to pay the one hundred dollars which the law demands of John. The money is accepted from Charles and John is released. By this means John is judicially relieved from the effects of the judgment and is set free, and his brother Charles has become his ransomer or deliverer.
241 In this illustration John represents Adam. Because Adam violated God's law, Jehovah judicially determined that Adam should forfeit his life by dying. He enforced this judgment during a period of 930 years, during which time Adam begat all of his children. The effect of sentencing Adam to death was to render all of his children subject to death. Adam went into death, and since then great numbers of his children have likewise died. We can say, then, that Adam and all those who have died and are in their graves are in the condition of death, and that is what the prophet of the Lord calls it.
242 In this picture Charles represents Jesus. It was God's will that the perfect man Jesus should redeem
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Adam and his offspring from the condition of death. Jesus was willing to pay Adam's debt and redeem him, but the perfect, righteous, human being Jesus could not accomplish that purpose while living in the flesh, for the same reason that Charles could not use his strength, time, and energy to pay the debt of his brother John, but must first reduce those things to a purchasing value. Jesus must reduce his perfect humanity to a purchasing value, which we may call merit, and which merit or purchasing value would be sufficient for the payment of Adam's debt and release Adam and his offspring from that judgment. In order to provide this price it was necessary for Jesus to die. In his death upon Calvary, then, he produced the price. But the value of that price must be presented before Jehovah in heaven itself before Jehovah could release Adam or his descendants from the effect of death. And this, we shall see from the Scriptures, is what was done.
243 The inspired writer in the divine Word tells us that it was the will of God that all men should be saved from death by the ransom price and then brought to an accurate knowledge of the truth, in order that they might accept the benefits of the ransom and live. In due time the knowledge of these great truths will be given to every one of Adam's race. (1 Timothy 2:3-6) The ransom price was provided at the cross. The cross of Christ is the great pivotal truth of the divine arrangement, from which radiate the hopes of men. When all men come to a knowledge of this fact and all the obedient ones have profited by the value of the ransom sacrifice, there will be great rejoicing amongst the human race. When the grand finale is sung and all the harpers of heaven and earth unite in beautiful harmony,
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blending with the voices of all creatures perfected and happy, the great ransom sacrifice will be recognized by all as one of the strings of the harp of God that will yield sweet music to every ear. Then all can truly sing:

"In the cross of Christ I glory,
Tow'ring o'er the wrecks of time;
All the light of sacred story
Gathers round its head sublime."

244 In order for the human race to receive the benefit of the ransom sacrifice, it was essential for Jesus to be raised from the dead. His resurrection is therefore of vital importance, and this constitutes another string of the harp, which we will treat separately.

Why is the ransom the most vital string upon the harp of God? ¶ 177.
What effect will its appreciation have upon the human race? ¶ 177.
What is the most precious thing possessed by any creature, and why? ¶ 178.
When can a creature properly glorify his Creator? ¶ 178.
In whose image was man created? ¶ 179.
What did God give to man at the time of his creation? ¶ 179.
What is the difference between life and the right to life? ¶ 179.
Describe the condition and environment of Adam and Eve in Eden. ¶ 179.
Were Adam and Eve informed as to what would be the result of the violation of God's law? ¶ 179.
Was there any real wrong in eating the fruit? and if not, wherein was the wrong done by man? ¶ 180.
What was the effect of the sentence pronounced against man? ¶ 180.
What was the effect of the execution of that sentence? ¶ 180.
In what manner was the sentence executed? ¶ 180.
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When did Adam and Eve first exercise the power of producing their offspring? ¶ 181.
Was it possible for them to have perfect children? and if not, why not? ¶ 181.
Their children were born and lived, but did they have a right to life? and if not, why not? ¶ 181.
What is the difference between right to life and life rights? ¶ 182.
What Scriptural proof is there that all were born imperfect? ¶ 183.
Without divine provision for the redemption of man, would the earth become depopulated? and if so, why? ¶ 184.
Is mankind wholly dependent upon God's provision for life? ¶ 184.
If God has made full and complete provision that man shall live in happiness, what effect should that have upon men's minds and hearts? ¶ 184.
At the time God sentenced man to death did he foreshadow a provision for his release? and if so, how? Give the Scriptural proof. ¶ 185.
Did he here foreshadow the ultimate fate of Satan? and if so, what is that fate? ¶ 185.
Could the judgment Jehovah entered against Adam be annulled or set aside? and if not, why not? ¶ 186.
If it could be changed, what effect would it have upon the faith of men? ¶ 186.
Could God consistently provide for a substitute to meet the terms of that judgment? ¶ 186.
Is it Jehovah's desire that men should understand the necessity and reason for redemption? ¶ 187.
Why did God cause certain types and pictures to be made by his people? ¶ 187.
Explain about the passover lamb slain by the Israelites on the night of their leaving Egypt. Give the Scriptural account. ¶ 188.
What was pictured there by the firstborn? ¶ 188.
What was pictured by the lamb, and also by the blood? ¶ 188.
Who was spoken of as the "Lamb slain from the foundation of the world"? ¶ 188.
What was pictured by the deliverance of Israel from the Egyptians? ¶ 190.
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What arrangement did God make with Israel at Mount Sinai? ¶ 191.
What was typified by the inauguration of the law covenant at Mount Sinai? ¶ 191.
Who erected the tabernacle in the wilderness? ¶ 192.
The services performed by the priest on the atonement day in connection with the tabernacle foreshadowed what? ¶ 192.
Give a description of the construction of the tabernacle. ¶ 193.
Describe what the high priest did with the bullock on the day of atonement. ¶ 194.
What did he do with its blood? ¶ 194.
What did these ceremonies foreshadow? ¶ 194.
How often were these services performed? ¶ 195.
Why, then, was the law covenant made? ¶ 195.
What was the purpose of having the Israelites to go through these ceremonies once each year? ¶ 195.
What did the law demand relative to Adam? and how was justice satisfied? ¶ 196.
The fact that Adam's children were born after he was sentenced to death, what effect did that have upon the children? ¶ 196.
Why did God permit the sentence upon Adam to have a vital effect upon all of Adam's children? ¶ 197.
Did Jehovah promise to ransom man? and if so, give the Scriptural proof. ¶ 197.
Must this promise be carried out? ¶ 197.
Define ransom. ¶ 198.
Define sin-offering. ¶ 199.
Where and how was the ransom price provided? ¶ 199.
Where was the sin-offering begun? and where is it finished? ¶ 199.
By what prophecy did God show that it was his purpose to redeem man by his beloved Son suffering death? ¶ 201.
In what sense are Adam and his offspring held in restraint? Give the Scriptural proof. ¶ 202.
What was the first qualification of the one who would provide the ransom price? ¶ 203.
Could divine justice accept anything more or less than the value of a perfect human life as a ransom for Adam and his race? ¶ 204.
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Was it necessary for the redeemer to be a perfect human being? and if so, why? ¶ 204.
In what way did the law given to Israel indicate that a perfect human life would be required as a ransom price? ¶ 205.
Give an illustration under the law. ¶ 205.
Did the law picture what should constitute the qualification of the redeemer? and if so, where, and what, is it? ¶ 205.
How is man's extremity and dependence upon Jehovah shown in connection with the ransom provision? ¶ 206.
Could Adam redeem himself? or could any of Adam's children redeem him or their brethren? Give Scriptural proof. ¶ 206.
Why was man's condition hopeless without a redeemer? ¶ 206.
The ransom price when provided, where must it be presented? ¶ 207.
Could any human being present the value of that ransom sacrifice in heaven? ¶ 207.
What two potent reasons, then, are there which make it impossible for Adam's children to redeem their brethren? ¶ 208.
Show how man's future happiness wholly depends upon the divine provision for redemption. ¶ 209.
Does man's complete extremity enable us to appreciate more highly the value of the ransom sacrifice? ¶ 209.
What does this show with reference to the debt of gratitude man owes to Jehovah? ¶ 209.
Give an illustration of man's extremity; and what would cause him to feel grateful to his benefactor? ¶ 210.
If we find the proof to be conclusive that Jehovah has made provision for the redemption and deliverance of all mankind, how should that affect the mind and heart of every honest person? ¶ 210.
Whom did God send into the earth to be the redeemer or ransomer of mankind? ¶ 211.
What did Paul say about this to the Galatians? Quote the scripture. ¶ 211.
Was it important that Jesus should be qualified to meet the requirements of the divine law in order to ransom the race? ¶ 211.
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Since ransom means exact corresponding price, had Jesus been an incarnated spirit being would he have been qualified to ransom mankind? ¶ 212.
If Jesus had been part man and part God, would he have been qualified to meet the requirements of the divine law? ¶ 212.
What does the divine law definitely require as to the qualification of the redeemer or ransomer? ¶ 212.
How did God send his Son? and when he came, was he a man or was he God? Give Scriptural proof. ¶ 213.
Had any perfect man lived on the earth from Adam to Jesus? ¶ 213.
Suppose Jesus had been greater than a man when he consecrated at the Jordan, could he have met the divine requirements and become the redeemer of mankind? ¶ 213.
Did Jesus have power to produce a perfect race? and if so, did he in this way correspond to the perfect Adam? ¶ 214.
State what occurred before Pilate. Paraphrase the substance of Pilate's statement to Jesus. ¶ 214.
Under the Jewish law, what must be the age of a man in order to be qualified as priest? ¶ 214.
What was the age of Jesus when he presented himself to John for baptism? ¶ 215.
Why was it necessary for Jesus to wait until he was thirty years of age to begin his ministry? ¶ 215.
What was the difference between Jesus and prominent men of the earth with reference to receiving attention from others? ¶ 216.
Of what does true greatness consist? ¶ 216.
Why did Jesus say he came to the earth? Give Scriptural proof. ¶ 216.
How did Jesus become the servant of all? ¶ 217.
Why was it a sacrifice on the part of Jehovah to send Jesus to earth to redeem man? ¶ 217.
What prompted God to make this sacrifice for man? ¶ 217.
Why did the Pharisees and doctors of the law misrepresent and persecute Jesus? ¶ 218.
Why was Satan so anxious to destroy Jesus? ¶ 219.
Why did the scribes and Pharisees occupy a responsible position toward the Jewish people? ¶ 219.
What were some of the crimes Jesus properly charged
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against the Pharisees? and why did he so charge them? ¶ 219.
Did Jesus know that he was to be crucified? and how did he spend his last night with the disciples? ¶ 220.
What were his enemies doing at the same hour? ¶ 220.
What is meant by the Sanhedrin? and who composed it? ¶ 220.
What was the duty of this high court toward the people, including Jesus? ¶ 220.
When this court secretly met, state what was said by it concerning Jesus. ¶ 221.
Who were the parties to the conspiracy to destroy Jesus? and whose was the master mind directing them? ¶ 222.
How was Judas brought into the conspiracy? and under what consideration? ¶ 222.
Who was sent out to arrest the Master? ¶ 222.
Did the court have any right to try him at night? ¶ 222.
Did it have a right to cause him to testify against himself? ¶ 223.
Was there any evidence against him? ¶ 223.
What crime did the Sanhedrin commit in getting witnesses against Jesus? ¶ 223.
Did that court violate the Jewish law in voting for his conviction? ¶ 223.
Why did the court reconvene the morning following to ratify the sentence? and was this proper? ¶ 223.
Why did not the Jews put Jesus to death and not take him before Pilate? ¶ 224.
Why did Pilate wish to release Jesus? ¶ 225.
When Pilate attempted to release Jesus, what did the accusers do? ¶ 225.
Who were the responsible men that incited the mob to cry against the Master? ¶ 225.
To what did the civil power yield in sentencing Jesus to death? ¶ 225.
Which was more reprehensible, the civil or the ecclesiastical power, in this case? ¶ 225.
Who were put to death with Jesus? ¶ 226.
In the eyes of the world, did Jesus die as a righteous man? ¶ 226.
In the death of Jesus upon the cross, what particular prophecy was fulfilled? ¶ 227.
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Why must Jesus die? ¶ 228.
What was God's will concerning Jesus with reference to his becoming a man and being put to death? ¶ 229.
What did Jesus mean by saying that he was the bread which came down from heaven, and those eating that bread should live? ¶ 230.
Did Jesus die only for those who become members of some church denomination? or for whom did he die? ¶ 230.
Define sin; and what is the penalty for sin? ¶ 231.
How was the life of Jesus made an offering for sin, or a sin-offering? ¶ 231.
Would it have been possible for any of the human race to get life everlasting, except for the ransom sacrifice? ¶ 232.
The pictures made in the Old Testament are of what value to us in studying the New? and what did the bullock slain on the atonement day picture relative to Jesus? ¶ 233.
What did the court surrounding the tabernacle picture or typify? ¶ 233.
What was foreshadowed by the slaying of the bullock in the court? ¶ 233.
How was the ransom price provided? ¶ 233.
What pictured the beginning of the sin-offering? ¶ 234.
What was done with the blood of the bullock after it was slain? ¶ 234.
What was pictured by the high priest in the Holy? and what by his entering the Most Holy? ¶ 234.
For whom did Jesus give himself as a sin-offering? ¶ 235.
What was the purpose of the giving of the law covenant? and could it operate to deliver man from death? ¶ 236.
Was the shedding of Jesus' blood necessary for the remission of sin? ¶ 237.
How was the entrance of Jesus into heaven foreshadowed in the tabernacle service? Give Scriptural proof. ¶ 237.
What is the distinction between the death of Adam and the death of Jesus? ¶ 238.
By dying as a man, what did Jesus provide for man's benefit? ¶ 238.
Give an illustration showing how Jesus' death provided the price for the release of the human race from bondage. ¶ 239-241.
Could the perfect man Jesus deliver the human race from death and remain alive as a man? ¶ 242.
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What must Jesus do in order to redeem mankind? ¶ 242.
What did he produce upon Calvary? ¶ 242.
Where must the value of that ransom price be presented? ¶ 242.
Why is it necessary for man to be brought to the knowledge of the truth after the paying of the ransom price? ¶ 243.
Who shall have the knowledge of this truth? Give Scriptural proof. ¶ 243.
What is the great pivotal truth of the divine plan? ¶ 243.
When the human race comes to a knowledge of the value of the ransom sacrifice, what effect will it have upon the ones who appreciate it? ¶ 243.

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