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"Let Your Name Be Sanctified"



Chapter 14

PRAYER FOR IT TO BE SANCTIFIED

Shortly after the district ruler Herod Antipas imprisoned John the Baptist, Jesus, whom John had baptized and whom he had announced as the Lamb of God and as the Son of God, came to Nazareth in Galilee. This is where Jesus was brought up and got the name Nazarene. There he had worked as a carpenter until he reached thirty years of age. He had left there as a carpenter, but now he came back both baptized in water and baptized with the holy spirit of his heavenly Father, Jehovah God. He felt obligated to make his change of vocation known to his fellow townsmen. While he was teaching in the synagogues of Galilee, he did not neglect the synagogue in the obscure town of Nazareth, on the slope of a hill that terminates in a precipice. "He came to Nazareth, where he had been reared; and, according to his custom on the sabbath day, he entered into the synagogue, and he stood up to read. So the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed him, and he opened the scroll and found the place where it was written:

2 " 'Jehovah's spirit is upon me, because he anointed me to declare good news to the poor, he sent me forth to preach a release to the captives


1, 2. (a) What had Jesus been when he left Nazareth, but what changes in him had taken place when he returned to Nazareth? (b) What Scripture text did he read to the synagogue there?
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and a recovery of sight to the blind, to send the crushed ones away with a release, to preach Jehovah's acceptable year.'" — Luke 4:16-19; Isaiah 61:1,2.

3 If the scroll that the synagogue attendant handed to Jesus was like the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (DSIa) that was discovered in 1947, then Jesus had to do considerable unrolling from right to left to find column-page 49, where the prophecy of Isaiah 61:1, 2 is recorded by hand. Since Jesus read the Hebrew text of the Holy Scriptures, he must have read the divine name (represented by the Hebrew Tetragrammaton Tetragrammaton) three times. He did not cover over the name by reading Adonáy or Elohím instead of Yehowáh. In the Hebrew text the word Adonáy already occurs before the first Tetragrammaton in verse 1; and in Jesus' day the Hebrew text had no accent marks or vowel points written in to direct the reader to read Adonáy or Elohím when he came to the sacred Tetragrammaton. There was then no qeré perpétuum or "perpetual reading" written in with the Tetragrammaton to direct the reader not to read Yehowáh. So Jesus did not have vowel points inserted in the Hebrew text to tell him what to read or how to read.

4 On this momentous occasion was Jesus going to hide or cover over the name of God, his own heavenly Father, just to please the Jewish scribes, Pharisees and Sadducees bound by human traditions?

5 On a later occasion Jesus said to the Jews: "I have come in the name of my Father, but you do not receive me; if someone else arrived in his own name, you would receive that one......Do not think


3. When reading Isaiah 61:1, 2, what did Jesus do when he came to the divine name, and what markings in that respect were then missing from the Hebrew scroll?
4. To please men, what might Jesus have done then about the name?
5. In whose name did Jesus say he came, and only how could it be known that he came in that name?
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that I will accuse you to the Father; there is one that accuses you, Moses, in whom you have put your hope. In fact, if you believed Moses you would believe me, for that one wrote about me." (John 5:43-46) How could it be known that Jesus came in his Father's name, if he did not use his Father's personal name Jehovah? It is a poor son that does not know his father's personal name or that is ashamed to speak it out in public for fear of offending others.

6 Furthermore, Jesus said that Moses had written about him. Yes, when Moses wrote to the Israelites that Jehovah their God would raise up for them a prophet like Moses and would put his own words in the mouth of that prophet, Moses was writing about Jesus Christ. (Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Acts 3:20-23; 7:37) Moses was sent to the Israelites in Egypt to declare to them the name of the God of their forefathers and to make that personal name of God known in a way and to an extent that it had not been known before. In the five books of Moses (from Genesis to Deuteronomy) Moses used that divine name (Tetragrammaton) 1,833 times. If Jesus Christ was to be a prophet "like" Moses, then he too had to declare that divine name and make it known as it had never been before.

7 Jesus Christ was a prophet greater than Moses. Jesus Christ was the sinless Son of God, whereas Moses was the imperfect servant of God. Moses was only the prophetic type, whereas Jesus Christ was the antitype, the reality. Therefore Jesus Christ supplanted Moses. Moses acted as mediator for the Old Covenant of the Law, whereas Jesus Christ acts as the Mediator of the New Covenant. Jesus Christ performed far more miracles than


6. In what direct reference had Moses written about Jesus, and to fulfill this prophecy what would Jesus have to do regarding the divine name?
7. How did Jesus prove to be a prophet greater than Moses, and hence in what respect here pertinent would he not prove to be less?
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Moses and even raised the dead. If Jesus Christ is a prophet greater than Moses, would he do less than Moses? Would he, therefore, fail to declare the name of the One whose name he bore, when the ancient prophet who foreshadowed Jesus said: "I shall declare the name of Jehovah. Do you attribute greatness to our God"? (Deuteronomy 32:3) No! He would not fail to be like Moses in this important respect.

8 That Jesus did not fail to declare and make known the name of his heavenly Father is borne out by his own testimony on the night before the end of his human life. In his last prayer with his faithful apostles he said to his Father above: "I have made your name manifest to the men you gave me out of the world.... Also, I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world and I am coming to you. Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own name which you have given me, in order that they may be one just as we are. When I was with them I used to watch over them on account of your own name which you have given me; and I have kept them, ... I have made your name known to them and will make it known, in order that the love with which you loved me may be in them and I in union with them." Down till then all of Jesus' works he had done in that sacred name, just as he said when asked to prove that he was the Christ: "The works that I am doing in the name of my Father, these bear witness about me." (John 17:6, 11, 12, 26; 10:25) It is very evident, therefore, that when Jesus Christ read aloud Isaiah 61:1,2 in the synagogue of Nazareth, he read the name Jehovah.

9 "With that he rolled up the scroll, handed it back to the attendant and sat down; and the eyes


8. That Jesus did not fail in this respect is proved how by his last prayer with his faithful apostles before his death, and so what must he have read aloud in the Nazareth synagogue?
9, 10. When Jesus sat down, what did he say regarding Isaiah 61:1, 2 just read, and what was the full meaning of his remark?
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of all in the synagogue were intently fixed upon him. Then he started to say to them: Today this scripture that you just heard is fulfilled.'"  — Luke 4:20,21.

10 If Isaiah 61:1,2 was fulfilled, as Jesus said it was, what did this mean? It meant that Jehovah had anointed him with his spirit to declare good news to the poor, and that he was therefore the Anointed One or Christ. It meant that Jehovah had sent him forth to preach and that he was therefore Jehovah's Sent-forth One or Apostle. (Hebrews 3:1) It meant that he had been sent forth, not to be a carpenter there in Nazareth, but to "preach a release to the captives and a recovery of sight to the blind, to send the crushed ones away with a release, to preach Jehovah's acceptable year." He was already following up that change of vocation. "And they all began to give favorable witness about him and to marvel at the winsome words proceeding out of his mouth, and they were saying: This is a son of Joseph, is it not?'" — Luke 4:22.

11 Then Jesus verified to them the genuineness of the historical account of the prophets Elijah and Elisha. At the same time he also compared his own days there in the land of Israel with the days of Elijah and Elisha, when the dynasty of the house of King Ahab at Samaria ruled over the ten-tribe kingdom of Israel. This comparison was very fitting, for Jesus said that John the Baptist, who was then in prison, was Elijah the prophet that had been prophesied to come. So Jesus said to the Nazarenes in the synagogue: "No doubt you will apply this illustration to me, 'Physician, cure yourself; the things we heard as having happened in Capernaum do also here in your home territory.' " Jesus did not do so, but


11. How did Jesus then verify the genuineness of the accounts of Elijah and Elisha, and to whose days did he compare his own days?
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said: "Truly I tell you that no prophet is accepted in his home territory. For instance, I tell you in truth, There were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, so that a great famine fell upon all the land, yet Elijah was sent to none of those women, but only to Zarephath in the land of Sidon to a widow. Also, there were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, but Naaman the man of Syria."

12 The Nazarenes in the synagogue did not like being compared to the calf-worshiping and Baal-worshiping Israelites under the rule of the dynasty of King Ahab and of Queen Jezebel at Samaria. At that time the Jews had no dealings with the Samaritans of the day; also, there was then mortal enmity between the Syrians and the Galileans, including the Nazarenes. (John 4:9) Note, then, the effect of Jesus' comparison: "Now all those hearing these things in the synagogue became filled with anger; and they rose up and hurried him outside the city, and they led him to the brow of the mountain upon which their city had been built, in order to throw him down headlong. But he went through the midst of them and continued on his way." (Luke 4:23-30) They proved the fitness of Jesus' comparison; they showed no better spirit than did the Baal-worshiping Israelites of the days of Elijah and Elisha.

13 Matthew 13:53-58 reports about a visit of Jesus to Nazareth: "So they began to stumble at him. But Jesus said to them: 'A prophet is not unhonored except in his home territory and in his own house.' And he did not do many powerful works there on account of their lack of faith."


12. How were those Nazarenes affected by this comparison, and how did they show they had no better spirit than that of those to whom they were compared?
13. How does Matthew 13:53-58, also Mark 6:1-6, similarly describe a lack of faith on the part of the Nazarenes?
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Mark 6:1-6 adds: "So he was able to do no powerful work there except to lay his hands upon a few sickly ones and cure them. Indeed, he wondered at their lack of faith."

14 Not one of Jesus' half brothers there in Nazareth became an apostle of Jesus Christ. (John 7:1-5; Mark 3:21) However, later on his half-brothers James and Jude did become prominent disciples of his. (Acts 1:14; 12:17; 1 Corinthians 15:7; Jude 1) After escaping from death at Nazareth Jesus chose from among his disciples twelve apostles, sent-forth ones, "that he might send them out to preach." (Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16) They had all been baptized in water, not in Jesus' name, but with John's baptism in the name of Jehovah God, as they were in relationship with God by the old covenant through Moses. To these twelve Jesus made manifest the name of his heavenly Father. He taught them to sanctify that holy name, that is, to hold it sacred even though they did now pronounce it. He also taught them to pray for it to be sanctified. For this important sanctification he especially taught them to pray in an open-air talk that has come to be called the Sermon on the Mount.

15 "When he saw the crowds he went up into the mountain; and after he sat down his disciples came to him; and he opened his mouth and began teaching them, saying: 'Happy are those conscious of their spiritual need, since the kingdom of the heavens belongs to them. . . . Again you heard that it was said to those of ancient times, "You must not swear without performing, but you must pay your vows to Jehovah." However, I say to you: Do not swear at all, neither by heaven, because it is God's throne; nor by earth, because


14, 15. (a) From whom did Jesus choose his twelve apostles, and what did he make manifest to them? (b) How did he teach them to treat that name, and hence what did he teach them to pray in that regard?
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it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King. . . . But when praying, do not say the same things over and over again, just as the people of the nations do, for they imagine they will get a hearing for their use of many words. So, do not make yourselves like them, for God your Father knows what things you are needing before ever you ask him. You must pray, then, this way:


"Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified. Let your kingdom come. Let your will take place, as in heaven, also upon earth. Give us today our bread for this day; and forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And do not bring us into temptation, but deliver us from the wicked one."'" — Matthew 5:1 to 6:13.


16 In the opening words of this sermon on the mountain Jesus spoke of the "kingdom of the heavens," the kingdom of God. (Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20) In his sermon he later mentioned God's personal name. (Matthew 5:33)* However, in the model prayer that he taught in this sermon he put, as the first thing to be prayed for, the sanctifying of the name of the heavenly Father, even before the prayer for God's kingdom.  — Matthew 6:9,10.

17 The following year Jesus put these two things in the same order, first the sanctifying of the heavenly Father's name. "Now on the occasion of his being in a certain place praying, when he stopped, a certain one of his disciples said to him: 'Lord, teach us how to pray, just as John [the


* Here thirteen (13) published Hebrew translations of the book of Matthew of the Christian Greek Scriptures read "Jehovah," instead of "the Lord."
16. In the opening words of his sermon, what government did Jesus mention, but In the model prayer what request did he put first?
17. When asked to teach praying, as John did, in what order did Jesus put praying for God's name and kingdom?
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Baptist] also taught his disciples.' Then he said to them: 'Whenever you pray, say,


"Father, let your name be sanctified. Let your kingdom come. Give us our bread for the day according to the day's requirement. And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive everyone that is in debt to us; and do not bring us into temptation."'" — Luke 11:1-4.


18 If we pray this model prayer, generally called the Lord's Prayer, it is no small thing that we are praying for in asking for God's name to be sanctified; otherwise it would not be put first among the requests in the model prayer. Certainly, also, if God the "Father in the heavens" had no personal name, then it would be quite odd and foundation-less for us to pray for it to be sanctified. The Most High God has a personal name that he has revealed to us, and he has the highest respect for it. For the benefit of image worshipers he announced in Isaiah 42:8: "I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else shall I give my own glory, neither my praise to graven images." Jesus himself, as the Son of God, highly respected the name of his heavenly Father and refused to unsanctify it or bring reproach upon that holy name.

19 From his personal study of the inspired Hebrew Scriptures Jesus knew that his Father Jehovah has compassion for his holy name, especially when it is profaned by those upon whom his name is called; and that Jehovah purposes to sanctify his great name when it has thus been profaned. (Ezekiel 36:20-23; 39:6,7) Jesus knew that God's sacred name was called upon the nation of Israel but that it was being profaned by them


18. (a) Why must praying for God's name be important, and what does such prayer indicate for him? (b) What declaration through Isaiah shows he has respect for his name?
19. From Bible study what did Jesus know concerning God's attitude toward his own name and also concerning Israel's relationship to that name?
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to their own destruction. Jesus had been born in the flesh as a member of that nation upon whom Jehovah's name was called or with whom it was linked.

20 In the scroll of Isaiah, chapter forty-three, verses ten through twelve, Jesus read these words to Israel and he included himself under the application of the words: " 'You are my witnesses,' is the utterance of Jehovah, 'even my servant whom I have chosen, in order that you may know and have faith in me, and that you may understand that I am the same One. Before me there was no God formed, and after me there continued to be none. I — I am Jehovah, and besides me there is no savior. I myself have told forth and have saved and have caused it to be heard, when there was among you no strange god. So you are my witnesses,' is the utterance of Jehovah, 'and I am God.'"

21 By human birth into the nation of Israel, Jesus was one of Jehovah's witnesses. (Galatians 4:4-6) As Jehovah's witness Jesus had to bear witness to the name Jehovah and to sanctify it. Why, his own name Jesus meant "Jehovah Is Salvation." — See The American College Dictionary, 1948 edition, page 656, column 2, under "Jesus."

22 Jesus put the sanctifying of the heavenly Father's name first, because the Father himself put it first. Jesus did not want the Father's name to be pushed aside profanely and his own name Jesus to be made foremost, the only name known, among his disciples. Jesus did not mean that his own name should take the place of the Father's name. The name Jehovah is not the Hebrew "Old


20. As to the nation's obligation, under the application of what words of Isaiah did Jesus include himself?
21. How had Jesus become one of Jehovah's witnesses on earth, and what obligation toward God's name did he recognize?
22. Did Jesus mean for his own name to replace God's name among his disciples, and do the names Jehovah and Jesus (Jehoshua) apply to the same individual?
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Testament name" for Jesus. Jehovah and Jesus are not equivalent names any more than Jehovah and Jehoshua are equivalent names. (Numbers 13:16) Jesus or Jehoshua does not mean "Jehovah," but means "Jehovah Is Salvation."

23 Jehovah is the name of the most high and almighty God; Jesus or Jehoshua is the name of a servant of Jehovah God. Jesus said that, when offering prayer to Jehovah God the Father, his disciples should offer prayer in the name of the Son Jesus Christ for the prayer to be acceptable and heard. Among his last words on earth to his apostles Jesus said: "Whatever it is that you ask in my name, I will do this, in order that the Father may be glorified in connection with the Son. If you ask anything in my name, I will do it. ... If you ask the Father for anything he will give it to you in my name. Until this present time you have not asked a single thing in my name. Ask and you will receive, that your joy may be made full." (John 14:13,14; 16:23, 24) Asking in Jesus' name means recognizing him as the way to the heavenly Father, Jehovah God.

24 Likewise, in the model prayer, Jesus did not say, 'My kingdom come.' He did not pray for his own personal kingdom to come; he prayed for the kingdom of the Father, God's kingdom, to come. If he had publicly taught the Israelites to pray for Jesus' kingdom to come, the Roman rulers of the land and the Herodians could have accused him of teaching revolution to the Israelites, of inciting them religiously to rebel against the Roman emperor. (Matthew 22:16; Mark 3:6; 12:13) It was God's kingdom that Jesus preached. It was God's kingdom for which he taught his disciples to pray. In that kingdom Jesus Christ would be


23. To whom is the application of those two names, and what use did Jesus tell his disciples to make of his name in prayer?
24. In the model prayer, for whose kingdom did Jesus teach to pray, and why was that a safe prayer?
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only Jehovah's deputy or representative, ruling in the name of Jehovah "the King of eternity."

25 Hence Jesus' future kingdom according to the covenant for the kingdom that God made with King David was not a political kingdom on earth, drawing its power and authority from the world of mankind. To this effect, Jesus said to the question of Governor Pontius Pilate. "Are you the king of the Jews?" these words: "My kingdom is no part of this world. If my kingdom were part of this world, my attendants would have fought that I should not be delivered up to the Jews. But, as it is, my kingdom is not from this source [the Jews]." (John 18:36) So today it is not seditious or rebellious for Christians on earth to pray for God's kingdom by Jesus Christ.

26 A glorious manifestation of the kingdom glory of Jesus Christ was staged before he began his last trip up to Jerusalem. At that time he and his apostles were up north in the region of Caesarea Philippi, in the district of Herod Philip, near Mount Hermon of the mountains of Lebanon. Now, in this last year of his public ministry, Jesus was interested in what conviction his apostles had as to exactly who he was. He asked: "Who are men saying the Son of man is?" They said: "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets." Jesus then said: "You, though, who do you say I am?" The apostle Simon Peter answered: "You are the Christ the Son of the living God."

27 At this correct answer Jesus said: "Happy you are, Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal it to you, but my Father


25. From whom was Jesus' then-future kingdom not to draw its power and authority, as stated to Pontius Pilate, and is it politically wrong for Christians to pray that prayer?
26. What questions as to the identification of him did Jesus ask his apostles, and what did Peter answer?
27. At Peter's answer, what did Jesus say to him?
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who is in the heavens did. Also, I say to you, You are Peter, and on this rock-mass I will build my congregation, and the gates of Ha'des will not overpower it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatever you may bind on earth will be the thing bound in the heavens, and whatever you may loose on earth will be the thing loosed in the heavens." — Matthew 16:13-19.

28 In these words to Peter Jesus Christ announced that he would build something new, a congregation, "my congregation." Long previously the prophet Moses had come to be "among the congregation" of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai, at which time he received the sacred pronouncements of Jehovah God. (Acts 7:37, 38) Now Jesus Christ as the Prophet like Moses was to have his congregation also. He was to build this new congregation on a rock-mass, or a firm foundation. This rock-mass (Greek, pétra) was not the apostle Peter (Greek, Pétros); rather, it was Jesus Christ himself. Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, would build his congregation on himself, as a living rock-mass (pétra). He was bigger than Peter, and even Peter himself as a member of the new congregation had to be built upon Jesus Christ, just the same as the other apostles of Christ. The apostle Peter understood the matter that way, as he shows us by what he wrote later on in 1 Peter 2:4-10.

29 Because the new congregation would be built upon Jesus Christ as the living rock-mass (pétra), the "gates of Ha'des" would not overpower it. The gates of Ha'des, the common grave of dead mankind, would not hold captive the congregation after the faithful course of its members on earth.


28. Thus what was Jesus to build, and upon whom, and where and with whom was Peter to be built?
29. Why would the gates of Ha'des not overpower the congregation, and were those gates what Peter was to open with the keys to be given him?
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Those gates would be broken by a resurrection of the congregation from the dead! Those gates would not be either shut or opened by Peter. In due time Jesus Christ would give Peter the "keys of the kingdom of the heavens," by using which "keys" Peter would introduce to groups of people the opportunity to enter into the kingdom of the heavens.

30 Who, then, would prove stronger than the "gates of Ha'des"? No one else than Jesus Christ. He raised his beloved friend Lazarus from the grave after this believer had lain dead in the grave for four days. On that occasion Jesus said: "I am the resurrection and the life. He that exercises faith in me, even though he dies, will come to life." (John 11:25) There Jesus demonstrated again that he was not inferior to Elijah and Elisha in raising people from the dead. Years after the apostle Peter died, the glorified Jesus Christ appeared in a vision from heaven to the apostle John and said: "I am the First and the Last, and the living one; and I became dead, but, look! I am living forever and ever, and I have the keys of death and of Ha'des." (Revelation 1:17,18) It is no wonder that the "gates of Ha'des" cannot overpower the congregation that is built upon the living rock-mass, Jesus Christ.

31 After saying those meaningful words to Peter near Caesarea Philippi, Jesus said to all his apostles: "There are some of those standing here that will not taste death at all until first they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom," yes, "until first they see the kingdom of God already come in power." (Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1) How did this come about? In the following way:


30. How was Jesus Christ not to be inferior to Elijah and Elisha, and what statement years after Peter's death shows Jesus' power over the gates of Ha'des?
31. What did Jesus say that some of his apostles would see come before they died?
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32 "In actual fact, about eight days after these words, he took Peter and John and James along and climbed up into the mountain to pray. And as he was praying the appearance of his face became different and his apparel became glitteringly white. Also, look! two men were conversing with him, who were Moses and Elijah. These appeared with glory and began talking about his departure that he was destined to fulfill at Jerusalem. Now Peter and those with him were weighed down with sleep; but when they got fully awake they saw his glory and the two men standing with him. And as these were being separated from him, Peter said to Jesus: 'Instructor, it is fine for us to be here, so let us erect three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah,' he not realizing what he was saying. But as he was saying these things a cloud formed and began to overshadow them. As they entered into the cloud, they became fearful. And a voice came out of the cloud, saying: 'This is my Son, the one that has been chosen. Listen to him.' And as the voice occurred Jesus was found alone." — Luke 9:28-36; Mark 9:1-8.

33 Of course, the prophets Moses and Elijah were not actually there with Jesus on that lofty mountain when he was thus transfigured before three apostles. Moses and Elijah were still dead, still in Ha'des, the common grave of dead mankind. What the three apostles saw was merely a vision, not an actuality. Jesus himself called it that. "As they were descending from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying: 'Tell the vision to no one until the Son of man is raised up from the dead.'" (Matthew 17:9) It was a prophetic vision of Kingdom glory, as it were of the "Son of man coming in his kingdom," or, the "kingdom of God already


32. How did this come about eight days later on a lofty mountain?
33. (a) What indicates whether Elijah and Moses were literally there on the mountain with Jesus? (b) What effect did this transfiguration scene have upon previous prophecies concerning God's kingdom?
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come in power." It was only a vision; yet it made more sure the previous prophecies concerning God's kingdom, which God would bring in by fulfilling toward Jesus Christ the covenant for the kingdom that God had made with King David. Long after Jesus the Son of man was raised up from the dead and glorified in heaven, Peter as an eyewitness placed this value upon the transfiguration vision, saying:

34 "No, it was not by following artfully contrived false stories that we acquainted you with the power and presence of our Lord Jesus Christ, but it was by having become eyewitnesses of his magnificence. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when words such as these were borne to him by the magnificent glory: 'This is my son, my beloved, whom I myself have approved.' Yes, these words we heard borne from heaven while we were with him in the holy mountain. Consequently we have the prophetic word made more sure; and you are doing well in paying attention to it as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until day dawns and a daystar rises, in your hearts. For you know this first, that no prophecy of Scripture springs from any private interpretation. For prophecy was at no time brought by man's will, but men spoke from God as they were borne along by holy spirit." — 2 Peter 1:16-21.

35 In the transfiguration vision it was very appropriate to have Moses represented as being there with the glorified Jesus and that God's voice from heaven should say of Jesus: "This is my Son, the beloved, whom I have approved; listen to him." The prophet Moses had foreshadowed Jehovah's greater Prophet, Jesus Christ; and concerning the greater Prophet God said to Moses: "It must occur that the man who will not listen to my


34. With what words did the apostle Peter place this reassuring value upon the transfiguration vision?
35. Why was it very appropriate in the transfiguration vision to have Moses represented alongside the glorified Jesus?
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words that he will speak in my name, I shall myself require an account from him." (Matthew 17:5; Deuteronomy 18:19) In his heavenly kingdom Jesus Christ as the Greater Moses sees to it that the work that was foreshadowed by the work of Moses in the midst of the congregation of Israel is carried out. That work includes the sanctifying of Jehovah's name.

36 It was likewise appropriate that Elijah should be represented in the transfiguration vision. A work like that of Elijah and of his successor Elisha is closely connected with God's kingdom in which his beloved Son Jesus Christ reigns. This vision was given in the year after John the Baptist was beheaded. The vision referred, therefore, to something in the distant future that had not been performed by John the Baptist as the forerunner of Christ. Accordingly the appearing of Elijah in the vision pointed to a still future or additional fulfillment of Malachi 4:5, 6. It meant that the future establishment of God's kingdom in Christ's hands would be preceded by a forerunner like Elijah and that the kingdom of the Son of God would have a work carried on that would correspond with the work of Elijah and his successor Elisha. There would then be a great restoration work and a judgment work. Then let all the worshipers of Baal (Satan the Devil) look out!

37 Elijah's appearance in the vision raised a question in the minds of Peter, James and John concerning the fulfillment of Malachi 4:5, 6. "The disciples put the question to [Jesus]: 'Why, then, do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?' In reply he said: 'Elijah, indeed, is coming and will restore all things. However, I say to you that Elijah has already come and they did not recog-


36. Why was it also appropriate to have Elijah represented alongside Jesus in the transfiguration scene?
37. What question did Peter, James and John ask Jesus, and what did he give them to understand regarding Malachi 4:5, 6?
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nize him but did with him the things they wanted. In this way also the Son of man is destined to suffer at their hands.' Then the disciples perceived that he spoke to them about John the Baptist." (Matthew 17:10-13; Mark 9:11-13) Thus Jesus declared that the preliminary or miniature fulfillment of Malachi 4:5, 6 had taken place.

38 Jesus now made his final departure from Galilee for the south. "As the days were now coming to the full for him to be taken up, he firmly set his face to go to Jerusalem. So he sent forth messengers in advance of him. And they went their way and entered into a village of Samaritans, to make preparation for him; but they did not receive him, because his face was set for going to Jerusalem. When the disciples James and John saw this they said: 'Lord, do you want us to tell fire to come down from heaven and annihilate them?' But he turned and reproved them. So they went to a different village." (Luke 9:51-56) Likely their being in the territory of the Samaritans reminded James and John of how Elijah called down fire upon the troops whom King Ahaziah of Samaria sent out to arrest Elijah. But Jesus had come, not to destroy Samaritans, but to save them.

39 As Jesus continued on his way south on the eastern side of the Jordan River, through Peraea, the territory of Herod Antipas the beheader of John the Baptist, the time was drawing near for celebrating the annual passover on Thursday night, March 31, A.D. 33, that is to say, on the night of Nisan 14 according to the Jewish calendar. (Matthew 19:1; 20:17-19, 29) Likely Jesus crossed the Jordan River from Peraea to Judea near where the prophet Elisha parted the Jordan


38. What action did James and John want to take toward the unhospitable Samaritan village, and why did Jesus reprove them?
39. Through what territory did Jesus pass south to celebrate his final passover, and where did he cross the Jordan River from there?
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by striking the waters with Elijah's official garment, that is, opposite the Judean city of Jericho.

40 Monday morning, Nisan 10, came, when the passover lamb used to be taken into the homes of the celebrators. (Exodus 12:1-3) When Jesus and his apostles got near to Jerusalem he sent two of them ahead to get a riding mount for him; he was going to ride into Jerusalem according to the style of ancient kings of Israel when going to their coronation. (1 Kings 1:33-38) "This," says Matthew 21:4, 5, "actually took place that there might be fulfilled what was spoken through the prophet, saying: Tell the daughter of Zion, "Look! Your King is coming to you, mild-tempered, and mounted upon an ass, yes, upon a colt, the offspring of a beast of burden.'"" (Zechariah 9:9) Jehovah's prophecy was not to be allowed to fail!

41 "So the disciples got on their way and did just as Jesus ordered them. And they brought the ass and its colt, and they put upon these their outer garments, and he seated himself upon them. Most of the crowd spread their outer garments on the road, while others began cutting down branches from the trees and spreading them on the road. As for the crowds, those going ahead of him and those following kept crying out: 'Save, we pray, the Son of David! Blessed is he that comes in Jehovah's name! Save him, we pray, in the heights above!'" (Matthew 21:6-9) By what the crowds were crying out the prophecy of Psalm 118:25, 26 was being fulfilled.

42 The excited crowds were crying out, not that Jesus was Jehovah, but that he was coming in Jehovah's name; they said: "Save, we pray!


40. On Nisan 10 what did Jesus send two apostles to get for him, and what prophecy was now due to be fulfilled?
41. As Jesus rode to Jerusalem, what did the crowds do and cry out, in fulfillment of what prophecy?
42. (a) As whom were the crowds Identifying Jesus by their outcries? (b) What did Jesus, with weeping, say about Jerusalem's future, and why?
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Blessed is he that comes in Jehovah's name! Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David! Save, we pray, in the heights above!" (Mark 11:9,10) "Blessed is the One coming as the King in Jehovah's name! Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest places!" (Luke 19:38) Despite the exultation of the jubilant crowds, Jesus knew that the religious rulers of Jerusalem would not welcome him as king, as the permanent heir of the kingdom covenant made with King David. Accordingly, "when he got nearby, he viewed the city and wept over it, saying: 'If you, even you, had discerned in this day the things having to do with peace —  but now they have been hid from your eyes. Because the days will come upon you when your enemies will build around you a fortification with pointed stakes and will encircle you and distress you from every side, and they will dash you and your children within you to the ground, and they will not leave a stone upon a stone in you, because you did not discern the time of your being inspected.' " — Luke 19:41-44.

43 The religious rulers of Jerusalem saw no fulfillment of prophecy in Jesus' triumphal ride into Jerusalem. "Therefore the Pharisees said among themselves: 'You observe you are getting absolutely nowhere. See! The world has gone after him.' " (John 12:19) No anointing of Jesus with oil to be king followed at the temple. That did not matter, for Jehovah God had anointed Jesus with holy spirit to be the king at his own right hand in the heavens.

44 "And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple; and he looked around upon all things, and, as the hour was already late, he went out to Bethany [on the Mount of Olives] with the twelve.


43. What did the Pharisees say at this, and why was an anointing of Jesus with oil at the temple not important?
44. What did Jesus do at the temple, and what deserved to be done with the temple?
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The next day, when they had come out from Bethany, . . . they came to Jerusalem. There he entered into the temple and started to throw out those selling and buying in the temple, and he overturned the tables of the money-changers and the benches of those selling doves; and he would not let anyone carry a utensil through the temple, but he kept teaching and saying: Is it not written, "My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations"? But you have made it a cave of robbers."' (Mark 11:11-17) Like a cave of robbers, it deserved to be destroyed. It was — thirty-seven years later, A.D. 70.

45 Some Greeks, possibly circumcised proselytes, had come up to Jerusalem to worship at this festival of the passover. They asked to see Jesus personally. Jesus said to them: "The hour has come for the Son of man to be glorified. ... If anyone would minister to me, the Father will honor him. Now my soul is troubled, and what shall I say? Father, save me out of this hour. Nevertheless, this is why I have come to this hour. Father, glorify your name." At that a voice came out of heaven: "I both glorified it and will glorify it again." Here Jehovah God assured Jesus that his prayer for the divine name to be sanctified would be answered.

46 "Hence the crowd that stood about and heard it began to say that it had thundered. Others began to say: 'An angel has spoken to him.' In answer Jesus said: 'This voice has occurred, not for my sake, but for your sakes. Now there is a judging of this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out. And yet I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw men of all sorts to me.' This


45. In the presence of Greeks wanting an Interview, what did Jesus pray, and what answer did he get?
46. In harmony with Jesus' comment, how was that a time of judgment, and what judgment prophecy did he give afterward that involved even modern-day Christendom?
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he was really saying to signify what sort of death he was about to die." (John 12:20-33) It was for a certainty a time of judgment. Jehovah by his Messenger of the covenant, Jesus Christ, had come to the temple for judgment work. In expression of this, Jesus, after a sight-seeing tour of the temple with his apostles, foretold that this temple that King Herod the Great built would be destroyed. Then as he sat upon the Mount of Olives overlooking the entire city of Jerusalem he gave further prophecy of the destruction of that city as an expression of Jehovah's judgment executed with a baptism of fire. He also expanded this prophecy to foretell the conclusion of the entire worldly system of things, including modern-day Christendom.  — Matthew 24:1 to 25:46; Mark 13:1-37; Luke 21:5-36.

THE LORD'S EVENING MEAL AND HIS DEATH

47 Thursday's sun dipped below the horizon, and Nisan 14, A.D. 33, began. That night saw Jesus and his twelve apostles gathered in an upper room to themselves to observe the Jewish passover. In the passover lamb of which they partook Jesus saw a prophetic type of himself, "the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world." (John 1:29) In the course of this celebration Jesus told one of his apostles, Judas Iscariot, to leave and be about his business. That business was to betray Jesus to his bloodthirsty enemies for the reward of thirty pieces of silver. After Judas' departure, Jesus as the Greater Moses and as the prospective Mediator of a new covenant with Jehovah God started a new celebration. The new covenant required a sacrifice better than those animal sacrifices with which Moses inaugurated the old covenant of the Law at Mount Sinai. This new


47. (a) During the passover celebration whom did Jesus dismiss, and why? (b) In view of what covenant and its sacrifice was it now the time to start a new celebration?
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covenant would really result in the taking away of the sins of believers taken into the covenant. By this new celebration with bread and wine Jesus symbolized what that better sacrifice is.

48 "As they continued eating, Jesus took the loaf and, after saying a blessing, he broke it and, giving it to the disciples, he said: 'Take, eat. This means my body.' Also, he took a cup and, having given thanks, he gave it to them, saying: 'Drink out of it, all of you; for this means my "blood of the covenant," which is to be poured out in behalf of many for forgiveness of sins. But I tell you, I will by no means drink henceforth any of this product of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in the kingdom of my Father.'" (Matthew 26:26-30) The covenant for which Jesus was to provide the validating blood was the "new covenant" that Jehovah had foretold in Jeremiah 31:31-34.

49 Jesus' mention of the kingdom of his Father started a discussion going among his remaining eleven faithful apostles. He told them that it would be a kingdom of ministers, in which he himself would be the chief minister of God. Then he added: "However, you are the ones that have stuck with me in my trials; and I make a covenant with you, just as my Father has made a covenant with me, for a kingdom, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones to judge the twelve tribes of Israel." (Luke 22:24-30) This covenant for a kingdom would bring them into a kingdom greater than that which Jesus' forefather King David had held, which was merely "from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates." (Genesis 15:18) David's earthly kingdom was simply a prophetic


48. In this new celebration, what did Jesus do and say, and to what covenant did he refer?
49. In discussing the Kingdom, what did Jesus say about a covenant for it, and what sort of kingdom was this to be?
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type of the greater kingdom that the Son of David, Jesus Christ, would receive with dominion over the whole earth.

50 By receiving this kingdom at God's right hand in the heavens, the Son of David, Jesus Christ, would become David's Lord. David prophetically said so, in Psalm 110:1: "The utterance of Jehovah to my Lord is: 'Sit at my right hand until I place your enemies as a stool for your feet.' " This heavenly kingdom Jesus' faithful apostles and all other faithful disciples were to share with him.

51 Jesus closed the night's discussion with his faithful apostles with prayer to his heavenly Father. In this prayer he had his Father's name prominently in mind, and he closed his prayer with the words: "Righteous Father, the world has, indeed, not come to know you; but I have come to know you, and these have come to know that you sent me forth. And I have made your name known to them and will make it known, in order that the love with which you loved me may be in them and I in union with them." — John 17:1-26.

52 After that Jesus went out to a familiar spot, the garden of Gethsemane. Judas led a band there to arrest Jesus and then betrayed him with a hypocrite's kiss. Jesus was taken first before the ex-high priest Annas and then before his son-in-law High Priest Caiaphas and was condemned to death. (John 18:12-24) Then they turned Jesus over to a non-Jew, the Roman governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate, to procure Jesus' death by those who could execute him. They accused Jesus of sedition, of the effort to make himself a king in defiance of the Roman Emperor Tiberius Caesar.


50. By receiving this kingdom, what would Jesus become toward King David, and in fulfillment of what prophecy?
51. In his final prayer with the apostles, what did he have prominently in mind, and so how did he close his prayer?
52. Where did Jesus then go, what followed, and why was he brought before the Roman governor?
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53 Jesus privately told Governor Pilate that his kingdom was no part of this world and was not from a worldly source. Then Pilate bluntly asked: "Well, then, are you a king?" Jesus answered: "You yourself are saying that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone that is on the side of the truth listens to my voice." Pilate then asked: "What is truth?" (John 18:28-38) Yet Pilate had just heard it from Jesus. Hence Jesus was later referred to as "Christ Jesus, who as a witness made the fine public declaration before Pontius Pilate." (1 Timothy 6:13) Before this Roman governor Jesus proved himself to be the chief witness of Jehovah. It was for this purpose that he had been born as a Jew, as an Israelite. — Isaiah 43:1, 10-12; 44:8.

54 At that time Herod Antipas, the governor of Galilee and the beheader of John the Baptist, happened to be in Jerusalem. When Pontius Pilate heard that Jesus was from Galilee, Herod Antipas' jurisdiction, he made a friendly gesture toward Herod and sent Jesus to him for judicial trial. "When Herod saw Jesus he rejoiced greatly, for over a considerable time he was wanting to see him because of having heard about him, and he was hoping to see some sign performed by him. Now he began to question him with a good many words; but he made him no answer. However, the chief priests and the scribes kept standing up and vehemently accusing him. Then Herod together with his soldier guards discredited him, and he made fun of him by clothing him with a bright garment and sent him back to Pilate. Both Herod and Pilate now became friends with each other


53. What did Jesus say to him regarding the Kingdom and the purpose of his human birth, and what did he thus prove to be by his testimony?
54. Why was Jesus sent to Herod Antipas, and with what result to this procedure?
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on that very day; for before that they had continued at enmity." — Luke 23:6-12.

55 The judicial trial before Pontius Pilate was resumed. Pilate now called the Jewish chief priests, the rulers and the people together and said: "You brought this man to me as one inciting the people to revolt, and, look! I examined him in front of you but found in this man no ground for the charges you are bringing against him. In fact, neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us; and, look! nothing deserving of death has been committed by him. I will therefore chastise him and release him."

56 The enemies of Jesus kept blocking all efforts of Pilate to release him. (Luke 23:13-25) Finally they forced Pilate to yield to their wishes, shouting: "If you release this man, you are not a friend of Caesar. Every man making himself a king speaks against Caesar." They cried out for Jesus to be impaled. Pilate asked: "Shall I impale your king?" Who answered this question? "The chief priests answered: 'We have no king but Caesar.' At that time, therefore, he handed him over to them to be impaled." — John 18:38 to 19:16.

57 It was about nine o'clock Friday morning, Nisan 14, that the Roman soldiers were impaling Jesus, together with real evildoers, just as Bible prophecy had foretold: "He poured out his soul to the very death, and it was with the transgressors that he was counted in; and he himself carried the very sin of many people, and for the transgressors he proceeded to interpose." — Isaiah 53:12.

58 The noon hour came, when ordinarily there would be bright sunshine. But "from the sixth hour on a darkness fell over all the land, until the


55. What did Pilate then say about Jesus regarding guiltiness?
56. How did the accusers then test Pilate's friendship for Caesar, and whose kingship did they themselves choose?
57. With whom was Jesus impaled, and to fulfill what prophecy?
58. (a) What occurred at the sixth hour of daylight, and what outcry did Jesus make about three hours later? (b) At Jesus' outcry, what happened, and what prophecies were fulfilled?
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ninth hour [3 p.m.]. About the ninth hour Jesus called out with a loud voice, saying: 'Eli, Eli, la'ma sabachtha'ni?' that is, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?' At hearing this, some of those standing there began to say: "This man is calling Elijah.' And immediately one of them ran and took a sponge and soaked it with sour wine and put it on a reed and went giving him a drink. But the rest of them said: 'Let him be! Let us see whether Elijah comes to save him.'" (Matthew 27:45-49; Mark 15:33-36) But the prophet Elijah was still dead; so was John the Baptist, who had come with Elijah's spirit and power. To all appearances even God had forsaken Jesus Christ, letting him die on the impalement stake. So those who heard him cry out witnessed the fulfillment of the prophecy of Psalm 22:1, written by David, also of Psalm 69:21.

59 Then, at a time of real triumph, came Jesus' words: "It has been accomplished!" (John 19:30) Finally, with confidence in Jehovah God according to Psalm 31:5, Jesus said: "Father, into your hands I entrust my spirit." He now bowed his head and breathed his last. "When he had said this, he expired." (Luke 23:44-46) Above his head there had been posted by Governor Pilate the sign, in Hebrew and Latin and Greek, for all to read and understand, namely, "Jesus the Nazarene the King of the Jews." (John 19:19-22) In this way Jesus' own words to the Jewish ruler Nicodemus came true: "Just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so the Son of man must be lifted up, that everyone believing in him may have everlasting life." (John 3:1, 2,14, 15; Numbers 21:4-9) Here also the prophetic drama enacted by Abraham in attempting to sacrifice his only-begotten


59. (a) Toward the last, what did Jesus say, and under what published charge did Jesus expire? (b) How were Jesus' words to Nicodemus fulfilled, and also what prophetic drama of patriarchal times?
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son Isaac in sacrifice on Mount Moriah where Herod's temple stood was fulfilled. Here the Greater Abraham, Jehovah God, gave his only-begotten Son in sacrifice, that by means of him all the nations of the earth might bless themselves.  — Genesis 22:1-18.

60 A few days before this, on Nisan 10, when Jesus Christ rode in royal style into Jerusalem, the crowds had hailed him as the One "coming as the King in Jehovah's name." (Luke 19:38) What a profanation of Jehovah's name was therefore perpetrated when the enemies of the kingdom of God chose Caesar of Rome as their king and had the Son of God impaled as no friend of Caesar! They had rejected the living rock-mass upon which the Christ, the Son of the living God, said that he would build his congregation. He had become a "rock-mass of offense" to them, and they stumbled over that living rock, as foretold in Isaiah 8:14, 15. — Romans 9:32, 33; 1 Peter 2:6-8.

61 Those Israelites who rejected the rock-mass and refused to be built up on it as members of the congregation of the King who came in Jehovah's name no longer deserved to have Jehovah's name called upon them. The name that they had shamefully profaned now needed to be sanctified by those who could pray Matthew 6:9,10 as the footstep followers of Jesus Christ. These must become the people upon whom Jehovah's name should be called, for they are the followers of the One who has come in Jehovah's name. They accept Jesus Christ as the "rock-mass" whom God has chosen, and on him they can be built as his congregation, as a spiritual temple sanctified for God's name.


60. How was a profanation of God's name perpetrated when the Jewish friends of Caesar impaled Jesus Christ, and how was Isaiah 8:14, 15 thereby fulfilled?
61. Of what honor were those Jews who rejected the rock-mass no longer deserving, and, in view of this, what sanctification was necessary?


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