Due to various electronic necessities, insignificant formatting, punctuation, capitalization, etc. and other minor editing has taken place. Spelling has been addressed especially where scanning has caused errors.

Links to the various sections can be found at the bottom of the page. However, links to the individual chapters of Ezekiel discussed in this chapter appear here.

Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 27
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Chapter 30
Chapter 31
Chapter 32


VINDICATION

CHAPTER VI

ENEMIES

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JEHOVAH by his Word makes known his purpose to uncover Satan and his organization, fully ex-pose that wicked one to the eyes of all who earnestly desire righteousness, and to destroy Satan and his entire organization, that all creation may know that Jehovah is the only true and almighty God. It is necessary to know God and his King in order to live; hence the great act of vindication of Jehovah's word and name results beneficially to those who seek life everlasting in happiness and in peace.

At all times Satan has endeavored to keep the people in ignorance concerning Jehovah God and his Christ and his kingdom. For this reason it is written concerning Satan, the invisible god of this world, that he "hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them". (2 Cor. 4:4) For many centuries, unhindered in his wicked course Satan has kept the people in ignorance of the truth; but he must reach the end of his way, because God has so decreed. Long ago Jehovah placed his Word before mankind, and he has magnified his

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Word above his name; but now, having reached the end of Satan's world, and the time for Jehovah to act, he will magnify both his Word and his name. He now makes it possible for men to have an understanding of his Word and the meaning of his name. A knowledge of Jehovah, his King and his kingdom, is vitally necessary to those who love righteousness and who would live, and therefore the prayer of such is: "Teach me good judgment and knowledge: for I have believed thy commandments." — Ps. 119: 66.

To his covenant people the Jews God gave his Word, and had they gladly obtained a knowledge thereof and walked in the way of his Word that people would have been preserved and greatly blessed by the Lord God and would have been his chosen people above all others on the earth. The Jews were both ungrateful and unfaithful, and they failed as a nation.

Christ Jesus came to earth clothed with a full knowledge of the Scriptures and he taught the Jews the truth, but only a few gave heed to his teachings. He told them that they erred because they did not know the Word of God, nor his power. — Matt. 22:29.

The peoples of "Christendom", whom Jerusalem specifically foreshadowed, have been furnished with the Word of God and given an opportunity to know it and they have erred and gone in the wrong way because they know not God and his power. "Christendom" has not feared God; but the people thereof, and particularly the leaders, have walked on in ignorance and in darkness, being willingly ignorant of the things that God has given them the opportunity to know. (Ps. 82: 5) Both Jerusalem and "Christendom" are described as having less wisdom than the

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ox or the ass. "The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib, but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider. Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evil doers, children that are corrupters! they have forsaken the Lord, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward." — Isa. 1:3,4.

In this day a knowledge of Jehovah, of his King and of his kingdom is of greatest necessity for the peoples of good will. There are many people within the borders of "Christendom" and outside thereof who may now seek to know and to understand the Word of God and greatly profit thereby. To aid such truth-seekers attention is here called to the divinely appointed way of obtaining a knowledge and understanding of the Lord. "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; but fools despise wisdom and instruction." (Prov. 1:7) It is the fool that hates knowledge and refuses to receive it and profit thereby.

The peoples of the world are now in great distress and perplexity and are ignorant of the reason therefor and they know not what can bring them relief. God's Word contains all and complete information concerning the same. The man who fears God and desires to do his will, and who then diligently seeks to know and to understand, will have his faith and his work rewarded. "Yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding; if thou seekest her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures; then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of God. For the Lord giveth wisdom: out of his mouth cometh knowl-

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edge and understanding. He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk uprightly. He keepeth the paths of judgment, and preserveth the way of his saints." (Prov. 2:3-8) "Receive my instruction, and not silver; and knowledge rather than choice gold. For wisdom is better than rubies; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it." (Prov. 8:10,11) "The heart of the prudent getteth knowledge; and the ear of the wise seeketh knowledge." — Prov. 18:15.

The great issue is now between Jehovah God and Satan the wicked one, and the final determination of that question at issue is near at hand. One purpose in publishing the truth is to disclose to the people Satan and his wicked organization, but the chief reason for the publication of the truth is that the people might learn of the goodness of Jehovah God and of his complete remedy for the ills that afflict humankind. Let the people now learn and understand that no human power can lift the world out of its degradation, suffering and distress, but that Jehovah God, by and through his kingdom, will destroy that which oppresses mankind and will bring peace, prosperity and life and happiness to those who love him and who obey his righteous laws. His kingdom on the earth, now beginning, will first dash to pieces the wicked, oppressive organization of Satan, and the Lord will then speak peace and prosperity to the people. The reason for the woes that now afflict the people on earth is, as stated in God's Word, to wit: "Woe to the inhabiters of the earth, and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time." (Rev. 12:12)

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The "short time" here mentioned means that in the very near future the great question at issue between Jehovah and the Devil will be finally settled at the battle of Armageddon, and which must take place before lasting blessings can come to the peoples of the earth. Those who now get a knowledge and understanding of the reasons for that battle, and what will be the result, and what will follow after, and who then apply that knowledge in a wise manner, will be greatly blessed.

The chief ambition of Satan has ever been to have man worship and serve him, even as some have worshiped and do worship and serve Jehovah God. It was that selfish ambition that led him to rebel against God and caused him to dispute the supremacy of Jehovah God and to challenge God to put men on the earth whom Satan could not take away from God and cause to curse Jehovah. This challenge of Satan to Jehovah put at issue Jehovah's word and his name and the supremacy of the Almighty God. Since men are by nature born to look to a higher power, religion has been the chief means by which Satan has deceived and led men into his trap. By this means he has induced some to worship him directly, while others he has induced to worship various objects and things and thus to worship Satan indirectly; and this he has done that he might turn the people away from the true God.

Satan first organized the people on the plains of Shinar and started them in the way of the practice of the Devil religion. In the course of time all the peoples and nations of the earth, with the exception of the Israelites, practiced the Devil religion in some form.

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When God selected for himself the descendants of faithful Abraham and called them Israelites, and later Jews, he gave to that people his law commanding that they should have no other God aside from Jehovah. "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." — Ex. 20: 2-4.

Manifestly God gave the Israelites that law to protect them from the subtle and wicked influence of the Devil and to afford them an opportunity to maintain their integrity toward Jehovah. A few of that people, who are designated in the Scriptures as "the remnant of Israel", did remain true and faithful to God and did maintain their integrity toward him; but the nation as a whole fell away to the Devil and indulged in Baal or Devil worship, and for that reason God destroyed Jerusalem.

The Jews, or Judeans, of Jerusalem, being the covenant people of God whom he used to make pictures foreshadowing greater things to come, specifically typified or foreshadowed "Christendom"; that is to say, the people and nations that practice the so-called "Christian religion", and that claim to serve and worship Jehovah God and his Christ. The true worshipers of Jehovah God on earth were organized into a company by Christ Jesus and his apostles, and these who faithfully followed Christ Jesus have been called Christians, although the name is usually applied in derision. Only a few years passed after the death of

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the apostles until the majority of those of the company professing to worship Christ and God had fallen away by reason of the subtle and blinding influence of Satan. These professed worshipers of Christ and God adopted formalism and quickly indulged in hero worship, giving men great honor and praise and worship. Throughout the period of time known as the Christian era a few of those who made a covenant to do the will of God have maintained their integrity toward God, remained true and faithful to him, and worshiped him in spirit and in truth. But the great majority of so-called "Christian" people or worshipers formed themselves into companies or bodies, became active in the affairs of the world, and have since indulged in politics and other parts of Satan's organization and have become fully allied with Satan and a part of his visible organization. These organized bodies have practiced the Devil religion and falsely claimed it to be the "Christian religion". Such is the present situation throughout the nations and countries called "Christendom".

DEVIL WORSHIP

Baal worship is another name for Devil worship or Devil religion, and which Devil religion was introduced amongst the Jews. Balak was the king of the Moabites, which people practiced the Devil religion. (Num. 22:4) Balaam was a soothsayer of Mesopotamia. (Deut. 23:4,5; Josh. 13:22) Balaam, an instrument of Satan, would do anything for hire. He belonged to that class of men that walk with their hands behind them. He hired himself to Balak to curse the Israelites. (Jude 11; 2 Pet. 2:15) Balaam

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taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the Israelites. This was a form of devilish worship by lewd rites. "And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods. And Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor; and the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel. And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel, Slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor." — Num. 25:1-5.

From the time the Devil religion was introduced amongst the Israelites there was a persistent contest between the true worshipers of God and the worshipers of Baal. Although claiming to be God's people, many of the Jews worshiped the Devil and practiced the Devil religion. "And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim; and they forsook the Lord God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themselves unto them, and provoked the Lord to anger. And they forsook the Lord, and served Baal and Ashtaroth." — Judg. 2:11-13.

The name "Baal" is from the primitive root which means "to be master; (hence) to marry". Therefore the name means "master" or "husband", and figuratively means "owner". Baal worship, therefore, is a religion or worship of the Devil by joining or uniting with the organization of which Satan the Devil

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is master, husband and owner and by which union the Devil is accepted as lord and master. In the practice of this Devil religion graven images were used, which images or statues represented or stood for the unseen. The practice of the Devil religion still persists amongst the nations of the earth. Today men carry on their Devil worship and practice the Devil religion by employing such things as gold and other precious metals, church systems, edifices, commercial and military power, and other like things which they idolize by setting their ambitions and their affections thereon and by worshiping them. The Devil has induced many people to deny his existence and yet he induces them by subtle means to worship that which he has brought into existence.

Within ancient Jerusalem there were a few who were faithful and true to Jehovah God and worshiped him in spirit and in truth, and these few were hated and persecuted by the apostate Jews who claimed to worship God but who did not in fact. Also within that ancient city of Jerusalem there were those who made no pretense of worshiping the true God but who were called "heathen" or "strangers" and who were unfriendly to the true worshipers of God. All the nations round about the city of Jerusalem were heathen and worshipers of the Devil or practicers of the Devil religion, and they hated those who were faithful to Jehovah God and who inhabited Jerusalem. Likewise at this present day, within the land of "Christendom", which was foreshadowed by Jerusalem, there are a few people that are true and faithful to Jehovah God and who worship him in spirit and in truth, and these are hated by the apostate or so-called

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"Christians" who have fallen away from God and are under the influence of Satan. Also within the borders of the land or nations of "Christendom" there are many who make no pretense to be worshipers of God and of Christ and who are also unfriendly to the true worshipers of God. The nations round and about "Christendom" are called "heathen", and these are unfriendly towards the true followers of Christ Jesus. With these preliminary facts before us let us now proceed to the examination of the prophecy of Ezekiel.

Ezekiel's prophecy, chapters one to twenty-four inclusive, is directed specifically against Jerusalem. When that prophecy was uttered and completed, then followed the siege of the city of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. During that siege and until the fall of the city there would be no occasion for God's prophet Ezekiel to prophesy against the city of Jerusalem; hence he is said to have been dumb during that period of time. Such 'dumbness' manifestly means that during that period of time Ezekiel the prophet was dumb so far as Jerusalem was concerned. It would not mean that he was entirely speechless. Book One of Vindication gives consideration to chapters one to twenty-four of Ezekiel's prophecy. Book Two of Vindication gives consideration to the prophecy of Ezekiel beginning with the twenty-fifth chapter, and other chapters that follow thereafter.

The siege of Jerusalem began in 608 B.C., by Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon. While that siege was in progress Ezekiel did not speak against Jerusalem, and therefore he is said to have been dumb;

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but during that period of the siege he did speak the prophecy of Jehovah God against the nations called "heathen" and which were round and about Jerusalem. His prophecy is not spoken against Babylon; the evident reason being that the nation of Babylon was then being used by Jehovah as his instrument to enforce his judgment against the Jews. All the heathen nations or peoples practiced the satanic religion, and therefore the entire number represented the invisible ruler of this wicked world. The prophecy of Ezekiel specifically names seven of these heathen nations; and seven, being a symbol of completeness of things not seen by human eyes, evidently here is meant to include all the nations that go to make up Satan's visible organization. The entire enemy organization, both seen and unseen and which shall be utterly destroyed, is represented under the name of "Gog and Magog". The names considered in this chapter apply more specifically to those of earth who form a part of the Devil's organisation aside from the professed "Christian" element or who make prominent some other part of Satan's visible organization.

Chapters twenty-five to thirty, inclusive, of Ezekiel's prophecy name seven different heathen nations, to wit, Ammon, Moab, Edom or Seir, Philistia, Tyrus and Zidon (both names applying to the same nation), Egypt, and Ethiopia, Assyria had been overthrown before the prophecy of Ezekiel began to be uttered, and probably this is the reason that no predictions are made concerning Assyria. Although Ezekiel did not directly prophesy concerning the fall of Babylon, and for the probable reason above assigned, indirectly his prophecy does apply to Babylon, and the proph-

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ecy contains numerous predictions of and concerning the restoration of God's people; which implies a deliverance from Babylon and the destruction of Babylon as a component part of the enemies of the Most High. The prophecy does foretell the doom of all the enemies of Jehovah and therefore the enemies of Jehovah's people.

The prophecy of Ezekiel beginning with chapter twenty-five, and the chapters following, disclose many features and doings of Satan's organization and contains an illuminating description thereof. The inference that is properly drawn from this is that Jehovah's witnesses in the earth are first to take careful note of the Devil's organization, its make-up and its deeds against God and his kingdom, and then go and declare God's judgment previously written against that wicked organization and every part thereof. "Christendom" is the enemy of Jehovah God and his kingdom. There are others, who make no pretense of being Christian, that are God's enemies. While the first part of Ezekiel's prophecy deals specifically with "Christendom", his prophecy in the twenty-fifth to the thirty-second chapters inclusive deals specifically with other parts of Satan's visible organization all of which is the enemy of Jehovah God. To be sure, Jehovah knows all his enemies; but manifestly one of the primary purposes of Ezekiel's prophecy is to expose to God's covenant people now on earth every part of the enemy Satan's organization, and this he will do before he destroys them. "Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies; thy right hand shall find out those that hate thee." — Ps. 21: 8.

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AGAINST AMMON

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 25)

The Revelation, chapters one to three, takes seven branches of God's organization and deals with them during the period of judgment time. The seven churches or divisions of God's visible organization clearly picture states of affairs or conditions existing in all of the companies forming God's organization at one and the same time. With the coming of the Lord to the temple of Jehovah for judgment there 'judgment began at the house of God', which judgment would include the real as well as the professed followers of Christ Jesus. Corresponding to this Ezekiel's prophecy deals specifically with seven branches of Satan's organization, which he names, and against which he prophesied during the period of his dumbness against Jerusalem. The prophecy of Ezekiel has to do with God's judgment against Satan's organization, and the prophecy here under consideration specifically pictures conditions or states of affairs that exist in all of Satan's organization, and which is symbolized by the seven nations here separately considered. The prophecy here was leveled against ancient Ammon, and it may be expected that we shall find a modern Ammon against which the prophecy is also leveled.

The prophecy against Jerusalem had been uttered, and the dumbness of Ezekiel against Jerusalem was therefore beginning, and the prophet of God then writes: "The word of the Lord came again unto me, saying, Son of man, set thy face against the Ammonites, and prophesy against them." (25:1, 2) The indisputable facts are that prior to 1918 the faithful

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followers of Christ Jesus specifically directed their testimony against the religious systems of "Christendom", and which work was foreshadowed by the Prophet Elijah. The prophecy of Ezekiel, beginning with the twenty-fifth chapter, evidently foreshadowed the time of change of the work of God's people from that represented by Elijah to that represented by the Prophet Elisha. This prophecy therefore points in time to the period following 1918, when the Lord came to the temple and inaugurated the day of vindication upon "Christendom" so called. It seems to point to the period marked by the formation of the League of Nations, all of which nations were and are anti-God and anti-kingdom. The prophecy, of course, refers to conditions existing long prior thereto and which conditions began to be exposed and made known from and after 1918.

The seven nations specifically named by Ezekiel, and against which nations his prophecy was directed, were hostile against one another and were all united against Jerusalem, and to that extent they were one, and were equally at all times leagued together against Jerusalem. It is written: "For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee [God is represented by the earthly members of his organization]; the tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines, with the inhabitants of Tyre; Assur also is joined with them; they have holpen the children of Lot [Moab and Ammon]." (Ps. 83:5-8) Here are named five of the seven heathen powers mentioned by Ezekiel, and

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which are shown to be in a confederacy, or leagued, against God's true people, representing his organization. When Jerusalem fell the five heathen nations here named rejoiced, just as when God's "two witnesses" were killed the many enemies of God's people rejoiced. "And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth." (Rev. 11:10; Light, Book One, page 208) In both instances the rejoicing was due to selfishness and to a malicious desire to see God's people suffer. That rejoicing, however, is but temporary, as this prophecy plainly shows.

The Revised Version (25:2) says: "The children of Ammon, . . . prophesy against them." The name "Ammon" means "the son of my kindred, tribal (that is to say, inbred) ". Ammon was a grand-nephew of Abraham. His territory bordered on the east of the territory of the tribe of Reuben. (Deut. 3:16; Gen. 19:38) The Ammonites practiced the satanic religion, worshiping the Devil under the guise of the worship of Milcom (Molech, margin, 1 Ki. 11:5,7). The Ammonites were unfriendly to the Israelites during the time of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and when they were marching toward Canaan. (Deut. 23:4) On a number of occasions the Ammonites committed assaults upon God's people. Also they contaminated the Israelites in a religious way. (Judg. 10: 6; 11:4, 5; 2 Chron. 20:1-10; 2 Ki. 24:2) After the destruction of the city of Jerusalem the Ammonites continued to manifest their enmity against the people of Israel. When God's people were sent to rebuild the walls of the city of Jerusalem the

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Ammonites conspired with the other enemies to hinder the building thereof. — Neh. 4:7,8.

Jehovah caused his decree to be written precluding the Ammonites from ever entering into the congregation of the Lord. "An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of the Lord for ever: because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor, of Pethor of Mesopotamia, to curse thee." (Deut. 23: 3, 4) In this text "their tenth generation" manifestly means all the earthly generations of that people. "On that day they read in the book of Moses in the audience of the people; and therein was found written, that the Ammonite and the Moabite should not come into the congregation of God for ever. And I came to Jerusalem, and understood of the evil that Eliashib did for Tobiah [the Ammonite], in preparing him a chamber in the courts of the house of God." (Neh. 13:1,7) Furthermore, God caused the decree to be written against the Ammonites: "Therefore, as I live, saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall be as Sodom, and the children of Ammon [shall be] as Gomorrah, even the breeding of nettles, and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation; the residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my people shall possess them. This shall they have for their pride, because they have reproached and magnified themselves against the people of the Lord of hosts." — Zeph. 2:9,10.

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MODERN AMMONITES

The Ammonites therefore clearly appear to represent those whom the Lord God would never admit into the company of his true people because they neither sever themselves from Satan's organization, neither are they favorable to those who are escaping from that wicked organization, and who are pictured by the Israelites escaping out of Egypt. The modern Ammonites are a self-sufficient, inbred, evolutionistic or 'self-made by character development' class, and camp near upon the trail of God's true people for the purpose of harassing and opposing them, and have contaminated, adulterated and hindered the work of God's true people. They revile God's people while they themselves worship the Devil, practicing the Devil religion in some form.

Jehovah commanded Ezekiel to prophesy against the Ammonites: "And say unto the Ammonites, Hear the word of the Lord God; Thus saith the Lord God; Because thou saidst Aha, against my sanctuary, when it was profaned; and against the land of Israel, when it was desolate; and against the house of Judah, when they went into captivity; behold, therefore, I will deliver thee to the men of the east for a possession, and they shall set their palaces in thee, and make their dwellings in thee: they shall eat thy fruit, and they shall drink thy milk. And I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching place for flocks; and ye shall know that I am the Lord. For thus saith the Lord God, Because thou hast clapped thine hands, and stamped with the feet, and rejoiced in heart with all thy despite against the land of Israel." — 25:3-6.

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Thus is disclosed a people that make no pretense of being followers of Christ but who manifest a malicious and wicked spirit against the devoted people of God. They stand by and look on while professed "Christian religionists", so called, heap reproach and ignominy and cruel persecution upon the faithful people of God, and when these faithful ones are taken into the custody of the law of Satan's organization and unjustly punished, then these modern Ammonites express delight at such acts or deeds of injustice. They wickedly rejoice and take delight in such wickedness, both inwardly and outwardly, all of which the Lord God sees and takes notice of, and in due time will give just recompense therefor.

Nothing escapes the watchful eye of Jehovah, and in his due time he will give recompense to those who unjustly and wrongfully treat his people. The enemies of God may think they can ill-use his covenant people and go unpunished, but in this they do err. Those who love God pray: "Keep me as the apple of the eye; hide me under the shadow of thy wings, from the wicked that oppress me, from my deadly enemies who compass me about. They are inclosed in their own fat; with their mouth they speak proudly." — Ps. 17:8-10.

With full confidence in Jehovah, who is ever watchful, his faithful people sing: "My help cometh from the Lord, which made heaven and earth. He will not suffer thy foot to be moved: he that keepeth thee will not slumber. Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep." (Ps. 121:2-4) To his faithful followers Jesus declared the divine rule: "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one

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of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear ye not therefore; ye are of more value than many sparrows." (Matt. 10:29-31) Jehovah has permitted the Devil and his crowd to exhibit their wickedness in opposition to him and his kingdom by persecuting and ill-treating his true people, but he will vindicate them, as well as his own name, in his own due time. "For thus saith the Lord of hosts, After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you; for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye. For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants; and ye shall know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me. Sing and rejoice, 0 daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord." — Zech. 2: 8-10.

In corroboration of the fact that God will recompense those who have ill-treated his anointed, Ezekiel says: "Behold, therefore, I will deliver thee to the men of the east for a possession, and they shall set their palaces in thee, and make their dwellings in thee; they shall eat thy fruit, and they shall drink thy milk." (25:4) "Men of the east" here mentioned refers to the same as the "kings of the east" in Revelation 16:12. The Christ of God is the One who shall take possession of all nations and peoples of earth; hence these "men of the east" or "kings of the east" consist of Christ Jesus and the glorified members of his body now with him and also those on earth who continue faithful unto the end and who will be included in the same class. (Light, Book Two, page 38) God will duly recompense the enemies of

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his people, represented by Ammon. "Therefore, as I live, saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel [his covenant people], Surely . . . the children of Ammon [shall be] as Gomorrah, even the breeding of nettles, and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation: the residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my people shall possess them." (Zeph. 2:9) "Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord [to the day of executing the judgment of Jehovah against the enemy]." — Jas. 5: 7.

Jehovah's declared purpose is that the modern Ammonites shall have every reason to know that he is the Almighty God: "And I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching place for flocks; and ye shall know that I am the Lord." (25: 5) The meaning of the word "Rabbah" used in this verse is "great city" or "metropolis". It was the capital city of the Ammonites, and was therefore a royal city, and, says the prophet, it shall become like a camel's stable, which is a disreputable place. (Deut. 3:11; Josh. 13:25; 2 Sam. 11:1; 12:26; Amos 1:13-15) That means that the condition of the modern Ammonites shall be that of great humiliation, and they shall know that Jehovah is God. God will not permit his covenant people to be persecuted and the persecutors to go unpunished.

Further pronouncing the divine decree against the modern Ammonites the prophet indicates that these shall be delivered up to places in the League of Nations that is anti-kingdom and then to the fate of destruction which awaits that unholy compact. "Behold, therefore, I will stretch out mine hand upon thee, and will deliver thee for a spoil to the heathen;

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and I will cut thee off from the people, and I will cause thee to perish out of the countries; I will destroy thee; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord." (25: 7) Because of the cruel- and hard-heartedness of the modern Ammonites, it is needful that Jehovah God literally show them who he is. — Jer. 25:17, 21.

It is interesting here to note that there appears to be no provision made or expressed in the Word of God for the recovery of Babylon, which stands primarily for hypocritical Devil religion, but there is strong proof that God will be merciful to the modern Ammonites and open their eyes to the fact that they have been captured by Satan and then give them opportunity as individuals to obey and to serve him and to have the blessings of restitution in his own due time: "Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the Lord, Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities? Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah of the Ammonites; and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel be heir unto them that were his heirs, -saith the Lord. Howl, 0 Heshbon; for Ai is spoiled: cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth; lament, and run to and fro by the hedges; for their king shall go into captivity, and his priests and his princes together. Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, 0 backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me? Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord God of hosts, from all those that be about thee; and ye shall be driven out every man

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right forth; and none shall gather up him that wandereth. And afterward I will bring again the captivity of the children of Ammon, saith the Lord." (Jer. 49:1-6) Evidently this scripture means that God will not permit any of the Ammonites to be of his kingdom, but after the destruction of all his enemies the individuals that have made up the Ammonite class, who find that they have been the dupes of Satan their worst enemy, will be given an opportunity for restitution.

AGAINST MOAB

The Israelites, also called Jews, were the covenant people of God whom he punished for their unfaithfulness to him and their repudiation of their covenant with him. The people of the Jews therefore stood before the heathen world as the accredited representatives of God. Because Jehovah permitted or suffered punishment to come upon the Jews by the hand of King Nebuchadnezzar the Judeans, or Jews, were spoken of in derision by the heathen nations and these heathen said: 'The Jews are just like others of the heathen. They have claimed so much for their God and now he is unable to protect them from the assaults of Nebuchadnezzar.' Jehovah caused report of this to be made by directing Ezekiel to write: "Thus saith the Lord God, Because that Moab and Seir do say, Behold, the house of Judah is like unto all the heathen." (25: 8) That derisive statement of the Moabites not only was a slap at the Jews, but was an insult and reproach cast upon Jehovah. It was a presumptuous interference on the part of the Moabites with the work

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of the Lord. It was Jehovah's exclusive prerogative to punish the Jews for wrongdoing, and it must be understood that it was none of the affair of any of Satan's organization to interfere or to speak derisively of God's work.

In like manner in these last days, the organization called "Christian", which was foreshadowed by the Judeans, or Jews, is very much in disrepute amongst those who make no pretense of serving God. They see the so-called "Christians" falling away from God and they say in substance that the Christians are no better than other people, that they are all crooks and their God is no better than any other god. They speak with like words against the true Israel as they do against the pretending Christians. It seems certain that "organized Christianity" will come into greater disrepute amongst the peoples of earth, and then after the destruction of "organized Christianity" all persons who serve God in fact, or who claim to serve him, will be in disrepute in the minds of the class represented by the Moabites. Such is and will be a great insult and reproach to Jehovah God. The name of Jehovah will be vindicated, and all must come to know that he is God; and therefore he will visit the modern Moabite and properly recompense such.

"Therefore, behold, I will open the side of Moab from the cities, from his cities which are on his frontiers, the glory of the country, Beth-jeshimoth. Baal-meon, and Kiriathaim." (25:9) "Moab" means "from my father", that is, "seed of the (mother's) father." Moab was a son of Lot by his eldest daughter. (Gen. 19:37) The Moabites were unfriendly to the Jews and ill-treated them when they were on their

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trek to the land of Canaan, even hiring the soothsayer Balaam to curse the Israelites. (Num. 22; Mic. 6:5) The Moabites worshiped the Devil under the form of Chemosh. (1 Ki. 11:7; Jer. 48: 7,13,46) They assaulted the Jews and captured and held them in captivity for a period of eighteen years. — Judg. 3:12-14.

God has not permitted wickedness to persist in the earth in order to teach men the evil effects thereof, but he has permitted his covenant people to come in contact with Satan's organization, thereby affording them an opportunity under test to prove whether or not they love the Lord God. The Israelites came in contact with the heathen nations and were fully warned aforetime to keep themselves separate from the heathen, but they failed to do so. Their coming in contact with the heathen afforded them an opportunity to prove their love for Jehovah. Likewise God's covenant people who agreed to do his will and follow in the footsteps of Jesus Christ have been in the world but like their Master they are not of the world. They have been duly warned to keep themselves separate from the world and to prove their faithfulness and love for God. They have been told that friendship with the world and the mixing up with worldly schemes is an abomination in the sight of God. The Jews as a nation were unfaithful to God and for that reason he punished them. At the same time there were faithful Jews in the land who held themselves separate and distinct from their enemies and who maintained their integrity toward God. Likewise the people of "Christendom" who have covenanted to do the will of God have in the aggregate been unfaithful to God and have turned away to Satan's organization,

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but at the same time there have been a few who have maintained their integrity and remained faithful and true to God.

Ruth was a Moabitess. She voluntarily forsook the god of Moab and became willingly and obediently the servant of the Most High, and she received God's blessing by being made a link in the genealogy of David leading up to Christ. She ceased to be a Moabitess and was adopted into the family of God. As a people or nation the Moabites were enemies of Jehovah. The Moabite Sanballat did what he could to hinder the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem. (Neh. 2:19) The Moabites magnified themselves against Jehovah God, and by reproaching his covenant people they reproached Jehovah, and for this reason God pronounced his decree against Moab. "The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, saith the Lord. Make ye him drunken; for he magnified himself against the Lord: Moab also shall wallow in his vomit, and he also shall be in derision. For was not Israel a derision unto thee? was he found among thieves? for since thou spakest of him, thou skippedst for joy. . . . We have heard the pride of Moab, (he is exceeding proud,) his loftiness, and his arrogancy, and his pride, and the haughtiness of his heart. I know his wrath, saith the Lord; but it shall not be so; his lies shall not so effect it. And Moab shall be destroyed from being a people, because he hath magnified himself against the Lord." (Jer. 48:25-30,42) "And Moab shall be ashamed of Chemosh, as the house of Israel [ten tribes] was ashamed of Beth-el their confidence. How say ye, We are mighty and strong men for the war?" — Jer. 48:13,14.

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MODERN MOABITES

The Moabites therefore were and do picture a people, whether within the confines of the land of "Christendom" or outside thereof, who do not acknowledge Jehovah as God or pretend to be Christian but who practice some form of Devil religion; a people that is self-contained, self-important; a class of people who rely upon their own strength and the strength of their organizations. There are many such in the land called "Christian", and many outside thereof, who are proud, arrogant, lofty and haughty, but despise the name of God and of his Christ, and who are against those who worship and serve God in spirit and in truth. They are closely related to the modern Ammonites. They have their lodges, clubs and leagues, and like organizations, which practice militarism, and they count much on their military strength and power, and their god is their own power and their own strength. They are like "armed soldiers" of ancient Moab. Many of these clubs, lodges and leagues made up of men and women, and to which is attached militarism, reproach professed Christians and true Christians alike; and even after the fall of "Christendom" will still reproach the true Christians with the same hatred that they now have; and they shall come to bitter sorrow, as the Lord says of them: "Therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his life shall be grievous unto him." — Isa. 15: 4.

The modern Moabites, like the Ammonites, shall be delivered into the hand or possession of Christ: "unto the children of the east (coming) against the sons of Ammon, and I will give them in possession; in order that the sons of Ammon may not be remem-

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bered among the nations. And on Moab will I execute judgments; and they shall know that I am the Lord." (25:10,11, Leeser) The destruction of the modern Moabites is therefore closely related to that of their half brothers the modem Ammonites. — Jer. 25:17-21.

It was "Christendom" that instigated the persecution of God's people during the World War. Foreknowing this tribulation that was to come upon them God foretold it in these words:" Take counsel, execute judgment; make thy shadow as the night in the midst of the noonday; hide the outcasts; bewray not him that wandereth. Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler; for the extortioner is at an end, the spoiler ceaseth, the oppressors are consumed out of the land."  — Isa. 16: 3,4.

The modern Moabites there had the opportunity of furnishing some succor and help to God's covenant people then in trouble, but instead of so doing they rejoiced at the tribulation that came upon the faithful children of God during the period from 1917 to 1919 and hence these faithful ones were scattered and persecuted. No country on earth during the World War hardships furnished aid or succor to the faithful people of God, nor did these nations give heed to the truth God's faithful people had proclaimed. In all such countries those who did not even claim to be the followers of Christ or worshipers of God also manifested their ill will against God's people. These opposers of God's people did not trust in the churches of "Christendom", but they trusted in their own works and in their own treasures and practiced some form of Devil religion. They willingly cooperated,

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however, with the powers of "Christendom" to cut off God's people and destroy them out of the land of the living. Therefore it is written concerning the modern Moabites: "Against Moab thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, . . . For because thou hast trusted in thy works, and in thy treasures, thou shalt also be taken; and Chemosh shall go forth into captivity, with his priests and his princes together. . . . The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, saith the Lord." — Jer. 48:1-25.

It is to the "men of the east", including the anointed ones on earth, that the execution of God's judgments is committed. All the saints must have a part therein even though the only part the earthly division has is to serve notice and sing the praises of Jehovah. "To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people; to execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all his saints. Praise ye the Lord." (Ps. 149: 7,9) Any one of the anointed, therefore, who is negligent or indifferent in the performance of his duty shall be condemned by the Lord. "Cursed be he that doeth the work of the Lord deceitfully [negligently, margin]." (Jer. 48:10) Jehovah's written judgment against Moab (ancient and modern) is: "But I will send a fire upon Moab, and it shall devour the palaces of Kirioth; and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet: and I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof, and will slay all the princes thereof with him, saith the Lord." (Amos 2:2,3) "Therefore, as I live, saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall be as Sodom."  — Zeph. 2:9,10.

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The Jews were the direct descendants of Abraham. The Ammonites and Moabites were the descendants of Lot, who was a nephew of Abraham. The Ammonites and Moabites therefore were distinctly related to the Jews and probably used a similar language, although opposed to each other. The Israelites or Jews foreshadowed the "Christians", so called, of modern times. The organizations within the borders of "Christendom", as well as outside, such as "Christian Scientists", so called, theosophists, psychologists, evolutionists and like ones, are distinctly related to "organized Christianity", and talk something like "organized Christianity". These are self-centered, self-important, and think they can by their own mental and physical efforts bring themselves up to perfection. They are the enemies of God and of his kingdom. These are the modern Ammonites and Moabites, and, like the Ammonites and Moabites of old, have been and are the dupes of the Devil; they are not willing hypocrites, but are entirely blind to God and to the truth; therefore after the destruction of their organization and systems God will have mercy upon them individually and in his own due time and way give them an opportunity for restitution blessings. "Yet will I bring again the captivity of Moab in the latter days, saith the Lord. Thus far is the judgment of Moab." (Jer. 48:47) The testimony is delivered to the modern Ammonites and Moabites within the land called "Christendom".

AGAINST EDOM

The people of Edom, otherwise called Mount Seir, picture another class of the enemies of God. "Thus

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saith the Lord God, Because that Edom hath dealt against the house of Judah by taking vengeance, and hath greatly offended, and revenged himself upon them." (25:12) The Edomites picture a class of people that reproach the name of Jehovah God because "Seir [doth] say, Behold, the house of Judah is like unto all the heathen". (25:8) This class also vent their spleen or malicious hatred against God's covenant people that serve him and give praise to his name.

Edom (which also we call Mount Seir) means "red", and is a name of reproach because of Esau's selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage. (Gen. 25:30) The Edomites were descendants of Esau by two heathen women of Canaan and by the niece of Isaac, that is, a granddaughter of Abraham through Ishmael. (See Genesis 36:1-6,43.) The Edomites worshiped false gods; therefore they practiced the Devil religion. (2 Chron. 25:14,15,20) They intermarried with the Horites (meaning cave dwellers, the original inhabitants of Mount Seir). (Gen. 36:12, 20-22) Edom is therefore addressed as "Thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, whose habitation is high". (Obad. 3) The Edomites ill-treated the children of Israel when the messengers of Moses, who represented the Lord, requested a favor for the Israelites. (Num. 20:21) They entered into a conspiracy with other enemies of God against the Israelites. "For they have consulted together with one consent; they are confederate against thee; the tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes." (Ps. 83:5,6) "Remember, 0 Lord, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof." — Ps. 137: 7.

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"Esau" means "rough" (that is to say, sensibly felt, because of his hairy skin). (Gen. 25: 25) "Seir" means "shaggy, rugged, hairy, rough and wooded", and is another form of "sa'ir", which means "devil, satyr, goat". The name is well used to picture and applies to a part of Satan's organization. "Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir. Esau is Edom." (Gen, 36: 8, 9) The Herod who caused John the Baptist to be killed was an Edomite.

The Edomites seem clearly to picture a class of persons who claim to have been begotten of the spirit of God and are therefore classed as spiritual brothers of God's faithful sons. The opportunity was once theirs of participating in the kingdom or royal house of God, but they bartered away that opportunity or right for ever that they might gratify their selfish desires. For a mess of pottage they give up the opportunity of entering into Jehovah's organization. Soured and revengeful against those who love and serve God, they persecute and try to take vengeance upon those who do enter into the covenant with Christ Jesus to be members of Jehovah's royal house. When they see other enemies of God and of his people persecuting Jehovah's "servant" class they join themselves to the side of the enemy and take either an active or a passive position in such persecution. They are not really a part of "Christendom", although in "Christendom", because they once separated themselves from "Christendom"; and then disregarding God's commandments, and relying upon their own loftiness, they return to the elementary things of the Scriptures and forsake God's kingdom. They perch themselves very high in self-exaltation, not believing

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that the Lord will bring them down to the ground as he declares he will do. (Obad. 3,4) They are wise in their own conceits and past masters at deception.

They voluntarily oppose those whom they once called their brethren. They slander these without a cause. "Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's son." (Ps. 50:20) When some of these saw there was a conspiracy against God's covenant people who were serving him, in the years 1917 and 1918, they lent their aid and support to the persecutors of God's people, and have been doing so ever since. "Shall I not in that day, saith the Lord, even destroy the wise men out of Edom, and understanding out of the mount of Esau? And thy mighty men, O Teman, shall be dismayed, to the end that every one of the mount of Esau may be cut off by slaughter. For thy violence against thy brother Jacob, shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever. In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even thou wast as one of them. But thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother in the day that he became a stranger; neither shouldest thou have rejoiced over the children of Judah in the day of their destruction; neither shouldest thou have spoken proudly in the day of distress." — Obad. 8-12.

As the Edomites stood by and gave aid and comfort and encouragement to those that were carrying away the people of Israel as captives, even so the modern Edomites or Esau crowd gave aid and comfort to the enemy that were persecuting and carrying away God's

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people during the World War distress. By thus taking vengeance and by having revenged themselves the modern Edomites put themselves in a class mentioned by the psalmist: "Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength, because of thine enemies; that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." (See The Watchtower 1930, page 100.) In harmony with this it is written: "Whereas Edom saith, We are impoverished, but we will return and build the desolate places; thus saith the Lord of hosts, They shall build, but I will throw down; and they shall call them, The border of wickedness, and, The people against whom the Lord hath indignation for ever.". — Mal. 1:4.

"SON OF PERDITION"

The description of the Edomites and the facts concerning the "evil servant" class (Matt. 24:48-51), "the son of perdition" (2 Thess. 2: 3-12), exactly fit. It is this class that join themselves in a conspiracy to do injury to God's people who are faithfully endeavoring to advertise the name of Jehovah and his kingdom. "Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, 0 thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the Lord."  — Jer. 49:16.

In a judicial decree entered against the Edomites Jehovah says: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, I will also stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it; and I will make it desolate from Teman; and they of Dedan shall fall

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by the sword." (25:13) Those who have once been enlightened by the Lord, and who then for envy take vengeance upon those who have been once their brethren, are far more reprehensible before God than those who have not been so enlightened. The district of Dedan was near Edom, and it is evident that those whom Dedan pictures joined with those whom Teman pictures in acts of vengeance against the people of God. It is written: "And these are the names of the dukes that came of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names; . . . duke Teman, duke Mibzar." (Gen. 36: 40-42) These were descendants of Abraham. "Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan . . . And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim and Letushim, and Leummim." — Gen. 25:1-3.

The adverse judgment entered by Jehovah against Esau also reaches the people of Dedan. "Flee ye, turn back, dwell deep, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I will visit him." (Jer. 49: 8) "And thy mighty men, 0 Teman, shall be dismayed, to the end that every one of the mount of Esau may be cut off by slaughter." — Obad. 9.

Jehovah will execute his vengeance against those who after having received his favor spurn his goodness, disobey his commandments, and persecute those who delight to do his will. Such are the modern Edomites. "And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel; and they shall do in Edom according to mine anger, and according to my fury; and they shall know my vengeance, saith

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the Lord God." (25:14) Christ Jesus, the chief executive of Jehovah, will execute his vengeance against the Edomites. All the members of the capital organization of Jehovah, including the faithful remnant on earth, are given some part in the execution of this judgment. (Ps. 149: 9; Obad. 17,18,21) "I shall see him, but not now; I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession for his enemies: and Israel shall do valiantly."  — Num. 24:17,18.

The Esau class, or modern Edomites, are those who do know better, yet who wrongfully do violence to those who praise Jehovah. God's vengeance will be specially manifested against such, and the remnant now on the earth must have to do with this in that they declare the day of God's vengeance upon his enemies. (Deut. 32:43) Those who are devoted to Jehovah will see the expression of his righteous indignation against his enemies and will rejoice in the vindication of his name. "The righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the vengeance: he shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked. So that a man shall say, Verily there is a reward for the righteous; verily he is a God that judgeth in the earth." — Ps. 58:10,11.

Jehovah further emphasized his purpose to inflict punishment upon the modern Edomites. (Jer. 25: 21) "In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof: and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old; that they may possess the remnant of

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Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith the Lord that doeth this." (Amos 9:11,12) "For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea [Edom], and upon the people of my curse, to judgment. The sword of the Lord is filled with blood; it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams; for the Lord hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea. It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever." (Isa. 34:5,6,10) "Thus saith the Lord, For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because he did pursue his brother with the sword, and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear perpetually, and he kept his wrath for ever: but I will send a fire upon Teman, which shall devour the palaces of Bozrah." (Amos 1:11,12) These scriptures constitute strong proof that the Edomites pictured a class that is turned away to complete destruction or second death. There is no promise in the Bible of restitution of the Edomites.

AGAINST PHILISTIA

At the time of the expulsion of man from Eden Jehovah caused to be recorded in his Word the prophecy concerning the enmity of the seed of the serpent, Satan, against the Seed of the woman, God's organization. (Gen. 3:15) The Philistines constituted a part of that seed of the serpent. The Philistines harassed, persecuted, and expressed their vengeance despitefully

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against the Jews in Canaan. God through Ezekiel said: "Thus saith the Lord God, Because the Philistines have dealt by revenge, and have taken vengeance with a despiteful heart, to destroy it for the old hatred." — 25:15.

The Philistines were the descendants of Noah's son Ham through Mizraim. (Gen. 10:6,13,14; Amos 9:7) The Philistines bore no close relationship to God's chosen people. The Philistines were the worshipers of the fish god Dagon and of the female god Ashtaroth, and also of Baal-zebub. (Judg. 16: 23; 1 Sam. 31:8-10; Judg. 10:6; 2 Ki. 1:2,3; Isa. 2:6) Being of the seed of the serpent they were the enemies of God's organization. They captured and imprisoned Samson. (Judg. 3:1-3; 16; Josh. 13:3; Ps. 83:7) Twice they tried to unseat David the king of Israel, moving their armies against him. In this connection the first battle of Mount Perazim was fought, which is a type of God's strange act and work. — 2 Sam. 5:17-25; Isa. 28:21.

The name "Philistine" means "rolling", that is, migratory, and doubtless refers to the fact that they migrated from Egyptian territory (Mizraim) and settled on the sea coast to the north. In Exodus 23:31 the Mediterranean sea is described as the "sea of the Philistines". They therefore must have had harbors and ships and commercial trade by sea. The Philistines therefore seem to represent and picture those who outwardly appear to have come out of the world (that is, migrated from Egypt) and who make a pretext of worshiping God but who in fact worship the Devil under various forms and particularly oppress the "prisoner" class represented by Samson. They

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reject Christ Jesus, the Prince of peace and earth's rightful Ruler, and oppose the establishment of the kingdom of God. They reject the Stone laid in Zion, and therefore clearly include those described by the prophet of God as "the principal of the flock" and who rely upon their own strength and their military equipment and strength and are therefore under the influence of their god the Devil. During the World War practically all the clergymen of "Christendom" openly advocated the war, and supported the same in some form. Probably the wide testimony of the truth of God's Word concerning the followers of Christ Jesus engaging in the war, which testimony has been emphasized since the war ended, has caused some of the clergymen to become weak-kneed and disposed to reverse their position in regard to participating in war.

In 1931 a questionnaire was sent out to the preachers to get an expression from them concerning their advocacy of war, and in response to that questionnaire a number of clergymen expressed themselves against war. This shows that they were ashamed of their former record during the World War. During the World War these "principal men of the flock", politicians, military men and commercial men, had held the clergymen in line, but after the war some of them began to try to face about in order to gain back, if possible, the support of many people who had once thought them to be honest. About the close of 1931 a general in the United States army, and who is one of the 'principal in the flock' of the so-called "Christian church", comes forth in a printed statement in which he severely takes to task the clergymen that have

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dared express themselves as opposed to war. Like his subtle and hypocritical father the Devil, this general in the army quotes scripture and misapplies it in order to bolster up his position. The incident is cited here to show the class of men who are always against God's anointed, and who harass, unjustly criticize and persecute them because of their faithfulness to God. None of these "uncircumcised Philistines" get into the real company of God's people, but they do push their noses in, and stick out their chest, amongst the professed Christians, and this they do in order to make themselves appear important and great. It is the navy and military power that backs the commercial giants at sea and makes it possible for these to carry on their operations which result in oppressing the people.

Great corporations have been organized and now exist within the borders of the land called "Christendom". Many of the chief men therein have apparently come out of the world and have associated themselves with the so-called "Christian church" and in that organization are made by the clergy the 'principal ones of the flock'. These men are modern uncircumcised Philistines. They never, in fact, came out of the world, have never had any spiritual interest in God's kingdom, and never even claimed to have, but have always been against it. They rely upon their own strength and the strong arm of their so-called "law and order force". When they can quote scripture to apparently support their position they do so, but they have no faith in it whatsoever. They coerce and oppress the "prisoner" class and aid the clergy in holding such as prisoners in the churches. They exercise

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a cruel, oppressive military power against all that dare take a position for the right, that is to say, for God's kingdom. There is an abundance of evidence that has been brought to light during the past few years about these modern Philistines who operate, for instance, the coal fields of West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and other places. These men persecute the men and women who make an honest endeavor to feed the starving children of the families whom they desire to keep within their power. They also persecute and oppress Jehovah's witnesses who make an effort to carry the Word of God and his kingdom amongst the people.

God's judgment is written against them; therefore he directs Ezekiel to say: "Therefore, thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will stretch out mine hand upon the Philistines, and I will cut off the Cherethims [Cherethites, R.V.], and destroy the remnant of the sea coast. "(25:16) "Cherethims" means "executioners", such as guardsmen, private policemen, etc. They clearly picture the element amongst the modern Philistines that are hired by their chiefs to bear military arms and to unjustly and without right execute innocent men and women. Included within this crowd are dishonest judges of courts, who owe their positions to the power and influence of the men that own and control the great corporations and who employ the force and power of the law to unjustly punish and execute those who are innocent of crime. Many an innocent man is made a "goat" to hide the wickedness of some of these "principal of the flock". These men are officers of Satan's organization posing as principals of the flock of the church organizations,

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and form a part of the crowd that controls and operates the commerce of land and sea, and they do it by force and violence, and are mentioned by God's prophet in these words: "Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of the Lord is against you; 0 Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant. And the coast shall be for the remnant of the house of Judah; they shall feed thereupon; in the houses of Ashkelon shall they lie down in the evening; for the Lord their God shall visit them, and turn away their captivity." — Zeph. 2: 5, 7.

The gross and flagrant injustices which in these days are practiced by the modern Philistine against defenseless people of the land will not go unnoticed by the Lord, and in his due time he will execute his vengeance upon such that they may know that he is the Almighty God. "And I will execute great vengeance upon them with furious rebukes; and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall lay my vengeance upon them." — 25:17.

Let the peoples of good will, and who are suffering oppression at the hands of these modern Philistines, consider the Word of God and take courage. The Lord's kingdom will bring them relief. All the people and the nations that have practiced the Devil religion and use various hypocritical cloaks behind which to hide their acts of unjustice, and all that oppose God and his kingdom of righteousness, shall drink of the cup of his wrath, because he has thus declared it. "Then took I the cup at the Lord's hand, and made all the nations to drink, unto whom the Lord had sent me ... and all the kings [wicked rulers] of the

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land of the Philistines, and [the Philistines' cities of] Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod." (Jer. 25:17,20) "The word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Philistines, before that Pharaoh smote Gaza. 0 thou sword of the Lord, how long will it be ere thou be quiet? put up thyself into thy scabbard, rest, and be still. How can it be quiet, seeing the Lord hath given it a charge against Ashkelon, and against the sea shore? there hath he appointed it." — Jer. 47:1, 6, 7.

It seems certain that God's remnant on earth have something to do with Jehovah God's judgment against modern Philistines, and their part of the work must be to serve notice upon such of and concerning God's purposes and his kingdom and to tell them that his kingdom is at hand. This work is now in progress by the Lord's faithful witnesses. This work of witnessing is not for the purpose of giving glory to the remnant, but for the sole purpose of the vindication of Jehovah's name, and hence that those upon whom notice is served may know that Jehovah is the only true God.

AGAINST TYRE

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 26)

The dumbness of Ezekiel during the siege manifestly meant that it was only against Jerusalem that he was not to speak and did not speak during that time, but during the time of the siege he was to pronounce God's judgment against the other enemies of God; and this conclusion is supported by the following: "And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the first day of the month, that the word of the Lord

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came unto me, saying." (26:1) If this was the first month of the eleventh year, that would be three months and nine days before Jerusalem was broken up, and four months and seven days before the city and the temple were burned. It is, however, not stated by the text which month it was, but it is certain that it was before the escaped messenger reached Ezekiel to tell him that "the city is smitten".

Jehovah, addressing his prophet, said: "Son of man, because that Tyrus hath said against Jerusalem, Aha, she is broken that was the gates of the people; she is turned unto me; I shall be replenished, now she is laid waste." (26: 2) This prophecy is directed against Tyre. The word "Tyre" means "rock", but not "The Bock", Jehovah. It refers to the rock of the mimic god, the rock on which the serpent has his way. (Prov. 30:19) It is the rock in which Satan's seed and representatives on the earth do hide themselves "for fear of the Lord, and for the glory of his majesty". (Isa. 2:10) It means the Devil and his wicked organization bearing his name. The city of Tyre was doubtless so called because it was originally built upon the mainland and was afterwards moved to the great island rock for defensive purposes. This was a part of the territory of Canaan, the accursed one. (Gen. 10:15,19; 9:25) Even in ancient times it was a strong city. (Josh. 19: 29) It was called the "strong hold of Tyre". (2 Sam. 24: 7) The prophet speaks of it as the "city whose antiquity is of ancient days". (Isa. 23:7,8) Tyre is spoken of as "the strength" of the ships of Tarshish or a "fortress". (Roth.) According to the Revised Version it is called "the strong hold of the sea". (Isa. 23:4) The ships

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of Tarshish were the carrier vessels of Tyre, being so called because of being a certain type peculiar to Tyre rather than because of being of Tarshish or built or owned by Tarshish. Proof of this is found in the following text: "Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold; but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber." (1 Ki. 22: 48) During the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem there were in Jerusalem traders from Tyre. (Neh. 13:16) At one time there was friendship between the king of Tyre and Jerusalem's rulers, but this changed to hostility.

Tyre seems to specifically refer to the mercantile-marine division of Satan's organization, that is to say, the business interests which exploit the people by ships at sea. It finds its highest expression in the seventh world power, to wit, the dual empire of Britain and America. This marine power once at least pretended to be friendly to God's people, but in the latter times has become very unfriendly. Germany did at one time bid fair to be a powerful contender for the shipping of the world, but her power was broken. The Bible attributes no commercial fleet to ancient Egypt. Tyre therefore seems to represent a special division or part of Satan's organization, whereas it appears that Egypt more particularly represents the commercial or Big Business power on the land, backed by military power, and which appears more prominently in the great financial and trust companies which juggle with the produce of the land and control the means of public transportation. While most of these organizations and powers operate within the borders of the land called "Christendom", yet

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many of them do not even pretend to be of "organized Christianity". Among the powerful men who control the commerce of the sea are many Jews, so called, yet who are against God and against Christ and against the kingdom of God. This is probably the reason why God by his prophet speaks of them separately and distinctly from Jerusalem, both ancient and modern. All are representatives of the Devil, to be sure, and form a part of his organization, but the Lord is pointing them out as separate and integral parts of Satan's organization and gives his people a vision of them from different standpoints.

It was in 1917 to 1919 that the seventh world power, particularly the mercantile empire of Satan's organization, succeeded in scattering the people of God, and which is mentioned by Ezekiel as saying "against Jerusalem, Aha, she is broken that was the gates of the people; she is turned unto me". Jerusalem, that is, God's covenant people, were "the gates of the people" God-ward, and Satan evidently reasoned that now the way toward God is broken by reason of the falling down of God's people during the World War. Then Satan would and did say, "Aha, she is broken . . .; I shall be replenished now she is laid waste." This would also be the language of that part of Satan's organization here specifically pictured.

The World War was really a contest for the control of the commerce of the earth. The seventh world power was perfectly willing and even glad that divine truth, which is the way of the people to God, should be cast down and trodden under foot just so she was not impeded in her efforts to win the World War and to control the great commerce of the seas of the earth.

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It would be natural, then, for this world power, seeing God's people go down and herself winning, to say, as it is put by another translator: "I shall be made full, now she is laid in ruins." (26:2) "Now the commerce of nations will be turned to me." (Margin, Rashi) Satan would and did rejoice when God's people were in distress in 1918 because these had impeded his progress in getting everything on earth for himself. Many heard the Word of God and believed it but were overcome by the deceitfulness of the riches of commerce: "He also that received seed among the thorns, is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful." — Matt. 13:22.

But now when the World War came Satan and his chief instruments in the commerce of the sea observed the faithful witnesses of Jehovah go down and become apparently dead, they would reason, Now we shall have the whole thing to ourselves and without opposition. This was too much for the weak faith of some of those who professed to be God's people and they turned aside from following after the Lord; but not so with the true ones. Jehovah God will supply the necessities of his faithful people, and those who are devoted to him will not be overreached by the commercial or rich influence of the world.

The big men of the seventh world power who control the commerce of the seas are doubtless the proudest that have lived on the earth. They are really rulers or princes of the seventh world power and together with their allies at land control the politics or politicians who are the more tangible rulers. These princes are really Devil worshipers, because they worship

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things such as money power and their own bellies, and they consult with the wicked angels and by this means are in communication with the Devil and are directed by him. God declares himself against them, which means both ancient and modern Tyre, and he so writes his judgment in these words: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I am against thee, 0 Tyrus, and will cause many nations to come up against thee, as the sea causeth his waves to come up. And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus, and break down her towers; I will also scrape her dust from her, and make her like the top of a rock. It shall be a place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the sea: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord God; and it shall become a spoil to the nations. And her daughters which are in the field shall be slain by the sword; and they shall know that I am the Lord. " — 26:3-6.

NEBUCHADNEZZAR

No man could be a type of Christ Jesus, the King of kings, unless that man was fully devoted to Jehovah God. A man, although not devoted to God, might be used as an illustration of God's manner of accomplishing his purposes. Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon destroyed Jerusalem. He was the head of the world power of Babylon. He was a representative of Satan, the god of this world, and, being the chief one in the world, he was therefore the king of kings. He was an illustration of the mighty One whom Jehovah will use for his destructive work against Satan's organization; therefore he illustrated or pictured Christ Jesus, who at the end of the period of waiting becomes the universal ruler of the world and

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whose right it is to rule, and who therefore is the King of kings. (Ps. 110:1,2) Prior to that time Christ Jesus had no kingdom although he was anointed as King. Satan had offered to give him the kingdoms of this world, and thus Satan was recognized by the Lord as ruling the world. Jehovah now takes away from Satan the right to rule the world and gives it to Christ, and this is according to the rule announced by the Lord. — Matt. 25:29; see Light, Book Two, page 321.

Jehovah therefore used Nebuchadnezzar as an illustration of his power that would be exercised against Satan's organization. Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and then laid siege to Tyre, and thus he illustrated the fact that Jehovah will first destroy "Christendom" and then all of Satan's organization, and that he will do so by the King of kings, Christ Jesus. Jehovah caused Ezekiel to prophesy against ancient Tyre, and which prophecy applies to modern Tyre, in the following language: "For thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, a king of kings, from the north, with horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen, and companies, and much people. He shall slay with the sword thy daughters in the field; and he shall make a fort against thee, and cast a mount against thee, and lift up the buckler against thee. And he shall set engines of war against thy walls, and with his axes he shall break down thy towers. By reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee; thy walls shall shake at the noise of the horsemen, and of the wheels, and of the chariots, when he shall enter into thy gates, as men enter into a city

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wherein is made a breach. With the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets: he shall slay thy people by the sword, and thy strong garrisons shall go down to the ground. And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise; and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones, and thy timber, and thy dust, in the midst of the water." — 26: 7-12.

History states that Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre for thirteen years but did not succeed in reducing it as described in the foregoing words of the prophet. Later Alexander assaulted it and in seven months captured the city. This would indicate that the prophecy was not completely fulfilled in the day of Nebuchadnezzar, but must be completely fulfilled 'in that day which the Lord has made"; and must be fulfilled upon that great organization, which Tyre represented. The fulfilment of the prophecy, therefore, must be the great act of Jehovah by and through Christ Jesus in destroying this and other parts of Satan's organization. The antitypical city or organization must suffer complete destruction, because Jehovah by his prophet further says: "And I will cause the noise of thy songs to cease; and the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard. And I will make thee like the top of a rock; thou shalt be a place to spread nets upon; thou shalt be built no more; for I the Lord have spoken it, saith the Lord God." — 26:13,14.

Jesus visited Tyre in his day, thus showing that the city existed then. (Matt. 15:21) In this present century it has about 6,500 inhabitants. This shows that the complete fulfilment of the prophecy setting forth

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the judgment written against antitypical Tyre must be fulfilled against the organization pictured by ancient Tyre and fulfilled in "the last days". Therefore that must mean the complete destruction of the seventh world power, particularly with reference to the maritime Big Business, which has dominated and ruled commerce, and which shall be built no more after Armageddon. However, it shall be more tolerable for the men of Big Business after the fall and during times of restitution than it will be for those ecclesiastical hypocrites of modern Jerusalem. — Matt. 11:21, 22.

"Thus saith the Lord God to Tyrus, Shall not the isles shake at the sound of thy fall, when the wounded cry, when the slaughter is made in the midst of thee?" (26:15) "The isles" here mentioned seem clearly to represent the small maritime-mercantile or commercial dealers in the seventh world power having favorable treaties and relationships with the giants or Big Business crowd. At the fall of the latter the isles or smaller ones shall also be shaken. The exalted leaders and magnates or commercial giants are referred to as "princes" whose policy is to exploit the seas of humanity and concerning which the prophet of God says: "Then all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, and lay away their robes, and put off their broidered garments; they shall clothe themselves with trembling; they shall sit upon the ground, and shall tremble at every moment, and be astonished at thee. And they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and say to thee, How art thou destroyed that wast inhabited of seafaring men, the renowned city, which wast strong in the sea, she and her inhabitants,

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which cause their terror to be on all that haunt it!"  — 26:16,17.

Britain, the head and seat of the seventh world power, has refused to recognize the freedom of the seas. Her navy is a shield and protector of her big commerce and has been and is a terror to all who have sought to do or to carry on business in great waters. The merchant marine of the seventh world power has made possible its Big Business, both at sea and on land. Tyre, however, more particularly represents Big Business that has operated by means of the waterways, but the relationship is close to that of commerce that is carried on at land. The prophecy of Ezekiel, however, treats the two from two different viewpoints.

Jehovah God will make a clean-up of that which has brought a curse upon mankind, and only the glory of the Lord will remain to fill the earth. The commerce of the seas, as well as of the land, has been made a curse to mankind and has been a means of glorifying men, but God's judgment is written against it and it shall not rise the second time. "For thus saith the Lord God, When I shall make thee a desolate city, like the cities that are not inhabited; when I shall bring up the deep upon thee, and great waters shall cover thee; when I shall bring thee down with them that descend into the pit, with the people of old time, and shall set thee in the low parts of the earth, in places desolate of old, with them that go down to the pit, that thou be not inhabited; and I shall set glory in the land of the living." (26:19, 20) "For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted

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up, and he shall be brought low; . . . and upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low: and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day." (Isa. 2:12-17) The God of battle will make a complete wreck of oppressive commercialism, which has been a terror to humankind, and concerning which the prophet says: "I will make thee a terror, and thou shalt be no more; though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again, saith the Lord God." — 26:21.

In the time of the resurrection, when men who have been adherents of Big Business, and who have operated the same, are brought forth they will be surprised to learn that commerce for the purpose of exploiting the people will never again exist. That fact will be a great consolation to those who have been exploited and gouged and oppressed by Big Business. "And Tyrus did build herself a strong hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold, the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea; and she shall be devoured with fire." — Zech. 9:3,4.

Christ Jesus, the great King of kings, will destroy this oppressive agent of the Devil and will deliver the needy. "The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents; the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him; all nations shall serve him. For he shall deliver the needy when he crieth; the poor also, and him that hath no helper." (Ps. 72:10-12) During the time of restitution Satan will be dead. His organization will

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also be destroyed. Satan shall never build another organization. During restitution men who have had to do with Big Business, the Scriptures seem to indicate, will seek to know how they might again carry out their schemes. Concerning this, according to another rendering of the text, the Lord says: "An unsubstantial thing will I make thee, and thou shalt pass away." "Suddenly will I annihilate thee, but thou shalt never be found any more." — 26:21, Leeser, marginal reading.

This applies both to Satan and the maritime Big Business that he has organized and carried on to oppress the people. It is only those who have willfully sinned against the light of God's kingdom that will not be resurrected until the end of the thousand-year reign and suffer complete destruction with the Devil. Those who have been dupes of the Devil, and have sinned ignorantly concerning God's kingdom, will have an opportunity during the thousand-year reign of Christ.

STRATEGIC POSITION

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 27)

The twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel's prophecy continues against Tyrus or Tyre. The seventh world power, to wit, Britannic-American empire, and particularly the mercantile commerce of the seas, has held a strategic position among and power over the peoples of the nations in all commercial transactions, and this world power has made the most of it. Foreknowing this Jehovah caused Ezekiel to take up a lamentation against Tyre, but which applies particularly against the product of the Devil, to wit, the

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seventh world power: "And say unto Tyrus, 0 thou that art situate at the entry of the sea, which art a merchant of the people for many isles, Thus saith the Lord God, 0 Tyrus, thou hast said, I am of perfect beauty." (27: 3) According to another translator the language is: "I am the perfection of beauty!" (Roth.) Although within the borders of the land fraudulently called "Christendom" the Big Business crowd that has controlled the seas make gold their god, strut about arrogantly, and greatly admire themselves. Jehovah has caused to be written of his own organization: "Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined." — Ps. 50: 2.

Modern Tyre disputes this and, at the instance of the Devil, says: "I am the perfection of beauty." So great is the vanity and self-admiration of the maritime Big Business of Britain and America that those in control have constituted themselves the dictators of what the people shall hear and even think about, and they carefully exclude the message of truth concerning God and his kingdom. The radio is the God-given channel for the instruction of the people in matters of interest and convenience. In Britain Big Business controls the radio and absolutely refuses to permit even a word to be broadcast by Jehovah's witnesses concerning his kingdom. Big Business absolutely controls the radio messages by sea or from ship to shore, and shore to ship, or internationally. In the United States wing of the seventh world power the same element controls all the choice radio frequencies or channels and refuses to use any of these, or to permit their facilities to be used, for broadcasting the message of God's kingdom. No message is welcome or

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acceptable to these vain princes that informs the people truthfully as to what is the cause of the world distress or how it can be remedied. Although these dictators must know that man has no adequate remedy for the terrible conditions existing amongst the nations, yet Jehovah God's Word of truth concerning the same is excluded from the people by them as far as it is possible, and the exclusion is put upon the ground that it might offend some others. The real purpose, however, is to prevent the people from hearing and therefore from being informed concerning Satan, that he is the god of this world, and that the maritime power is one of the strong instruments he uses against the interests of the people. The people are learning that the advertising of Big Business as the sole stay and help for the people is purely a propaganda scheme and is intended for the gullible public to swallow that they might be kept quiet while Big Business continues to rifle the pockets of the people.

The prophet, continuing to address both ancient and modern Tyre, with words of sarcasm says: "Thy borders are in the midst of the seas, thy builders have perfected thy beauty." (27: 4) Commerce claims that its rightful field of exploitation is the people; that it has all the rights, and that this right is represented in the power it possesses and that "the public be damned".

The seventh world power not only denies the freedom of the seas, but in the language of its father Satan it says: 'These waters are mine, and I have made them for myself.' The master builder of modern Tyre is, of course, the Devil himself, and in this work there have been employed the most efficient and expert men,

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such as planners and builders, and these are the ones that it is claimed have "perfected thy beauty". Today this same Big Business or commercial power not only controls the ships and commerce of the waterways, but has engaged and employed and controls the keenest financial experts, the most brilliant lawyers and technical men that the world produces, for the purpose of carrying out her selfish schemes. She has spared nothing in her efforts to perfect the organization. All just and rightful privileges of the home, family and country are disregarded and even human life counts for nothing when these would prevent the carrying out of the selfish and devilish schemes to exploit the people to the profit of the few.

Furthermore the prophet, concerning this devilish organization, by verses five to seven continues to describe the divers means employed by these instruments of Satan to make his organization to appear beautiful, that it might dazzle and confound the peoples of the earth.

Zidon preceded Tyre as the master of the seas and then gave way to the latter. "The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mariners: thy wise men, 0 Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots. The ancients of Gebal, and the wise men thereof, were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise." (27:8, 9) Arvad is an island near Zidon which was also Canaan territory. (Gen. 10:15,18) The Canaanites under the curse of the Lord became the "rowers" (Roth.) of the ships of Tyre. Likewise those under the curse of sin, and under the control of their master the Devil, have been compelled to push and row the

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ships of Big Business, the Devil's organization, both at land and at sea. Those who are in God's kingdom and wholly devoted to it refuse to pull or boost for any part of Satan's organization.

In the world a man is considered wise if he is able to "put over" some big scheme. "Thy wise men, 0 Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots." These worldly-wise men now monopolize and control and manage the commerce of the earth, and hence are the pilots thereof, and exploit the whole business upon the people. These wise men are on the boards of directors, and see to it that things in their organizations are done according to their selfish wishes; but even in the present day, because of distress, many of them are turning black in the face.

Ancient Tyre had her rough sea work done by foreigners. Likewise the pilots of modern Tyre have their rough and dirty work done by hirelings while the pilots themselves hold themselves aloof as the very pink of beauty and as the preservers of the business interests of the world. Many of these workers in modern Tyre now recognize that they are foreigners and no longer free but that they are held where they are because with them it is to "do what you are told to do or starve".

It is thrilling in this day to observe that Jehovah long ago foreknew and foretold the present oppressive conditions existing in the world by reason of the operation of Satan and his tools in modern Tyre. The fact that these things are now coming to light is proof that we are now in the day of deliverance and therefore in a time to feed upon truths that the Lord is giving us and to rejoice.

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In the ninth verse of this prophecy above quoted Gebal is mentioned. Gebal means "hilly, mountain, border", and refers to the sharp-sighted, far-seeing ones of the commercial part of Satan's organization. The wise men thereof are not novices, but are experienced, astute, far-seeing and shrewd. These are employed as calkers (that is, preventers of leaks) to keep Satan's commercial ships afloat. Business panics, business depression, slack trade, and such like, must not be permitted if they can avoid it. To that end great holding companies have been organized, giant mergers accomplished, that a few might control almost everything. Special legislation has been enacted, public officers are influenced and even wars are produced, in order to keep the old ship of commerce afloat. These "wise men" have thought to completely control the business of the world by sea and by land, but even now they are becoming very much frightened at what they see coming upon the world.

"They of Persia, and of Lud, and of Phut, were in thine army, thy men of war: they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thy comeliness [splendour, Roth.]." (27:10) Ancient Tyre hired soldiers from other countries to protect her ships from pirates and other marauders. The great wealth resulting from her commerce enabled Tyre to hire outsiders to do her fighting. The controllers of commerce, which we commonly call Big Business and, to wit, modern Tyre, have not put their cultured and rich sons to the front to fight the battles amongst the nations and peoples, or in the navies and the armies, to do the rough work, but they have sent the men and boys of the people from the common walks of life to fill the trenches and

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to man the battleships and to shed their blood. The rich favored ones have stayed behind the lines to help work out the schemes to reap big profits and to get rich quick. The military and the navy are really the arm of force for Big Business but are camouflaged as the defenders of the nations. The fact is that the common people of no nation on earth would force a war between nations. These wars are always forced by the selfish interests of those who control the commerce. There would never be a war if it were left to the rank and file of the common people.

What has made the seventh world power appear so strong and beautiful in the eyes of all the peoples of the earth? The prophet answers: "The men of Arvad, with thine army, were upon thy walls round about, and the Gammadims [valorous, Roth.] were in thy towers: they hanged their shields upon thy walls round about; they have made thy beauty perfect." (27:11) The navies, the marine corps, and the supporting armies have been required to keep the things looking rosy or beautiful for the big commercial interests of the seventh world power operated at sea and upon land. By reason of the navy and the army and the marine corps the seventh world power has dominated the sea and kept the people helpless and in subjection while the experts of Big Business have gone through their pockets and have extracted whatsoever was found there.

Ancient Tyre had a profitable business or commercial connection with all parts of Satan's mighty empire, that is to say, with all the nations of the world. It did not handle things of the Lord by trying to carry his message to the ends of the earth for the

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glory of God. Likewise modern Tyre, the seventh world power, has had profitable or commercial or business relationships with the entire human race and has dominated the business of the world. These use the so-called "Christian religion" as a camouflage, sending missionaries along with their fleets into all parts of the earth, and backing these up with the guns and bayonets of the navy and the army, and by this means Big Business or commerce has been enabled to accomplish many of her selfish purposes. The Devil has thus made a powerful instrument out of this part of his organization. The seventh world power has given herself over to the traffic of this world which says: 'What shall we eat or drink, or wherewith shall we be clothed?'

Verses twelve to twenty-five of the twenty-seventh chapter describe the marine or commercial marts of the three great branches of the human race with which ancient Tyre had dealings and therefore picture modern Tyre, which likewise has commercial relationships with the entire world. Verses twelve to fifteen inclusive describe particularly the Japhetic, that is to say, the European race. (Gen. 10:2-5) Verses eighteen to twenty-one describe the Shemites. In the nineteenth verse Dan is mentioned, but this is not Dan of the tribe of Dan, but "Vedan" (R.V.), or "Wedan" (Roth.). Verses twenty-two and twenty-three describe the Hamitic. — Gen. 10: 6, 7.

It is noted that Judah and the land of Israel had commercial intercourse with Tyre, and doubtless from Tyre the Jews learned how to cheat their fellow man. This may also picture how some of God's covenant people permit themselves to be choked by the weeds

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and thorns of the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and who therefore resort to improper commercial schemes to gain such ends. — Matt. 13: 22.

It is not wrong for God's people to engage in an honest and just barter where the rules are observed that were laid down by Jesus, but anyone who engages in commerce and willingly takes advantage of opportunities to cheat others could not be pleasing to the Lord. Some of the consecrated in modern times have been drawn into deals with Big Business for pecuniary interest, which is always unprofitable spiritually to those who are seeking the Lord's approval. To be sure, God's people must come in contact with Big Business for the bare necessities of life; otherwise they must "go out of the world", as the apostle suggests. (1 Cor. 5: 9,10) Those, however, who are truly devoted to God, and who are children of his woman Zion, are seeking the things of the kingdom, and God according to his promise adds things that are necessary for their existence.

Big Business has by means of hire and also by coercion induced many men to do menial service and to be pushers and pullers or rowers of their schemes. These pushers or pullers or rowers have brought Big Business into deep waters, and the next step will be the breaking up of the oppressive crowd. "Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters: the east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the seas." — 27:26.

Big Business has gained control of big preachers, big lawyers, big doctors, and big engineers, and all of the various machinery of the governments, all of which are resisting and opposing earth's rightful King, Christ Jesus, the Stone which Jehovah God has laid

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in Zion. Big Business attempts to prevent the message of the kingdom from being published by the radio and by the public press. This wing of the Devil's organization continues to heap injustice upon those who serve God and those who try to do right. "Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter. Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you." — Jas. 5: 5, 6.

"ACT OF GOD"

The "east wind" that breaks Tyre in the midst must refer to the power of Christ, the King from the sun rising, to whom is given all power in heaven and in earth. "Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind. As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city of our God; God will establish it for ever." (Ps. 48:7,8) Such breaking is "an act of God", that is to say, the divine visitation of Jehovah God upon this part of Satan's organization and which Big Business cannot successfully resist. Jehovah has commanded his King to proceed to the breaking-up work, and the commercial wing of Satan's organization is in for her share in due time. "They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep. For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof. They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths; their soul is melted because of trouble." (Ps. 107:23-26) "He stretched out his hand over the sea; he shook the kingdoms; the Lord hath given a commandment against the mer-

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chant city, to destroy the strong holds thereof." (Isa. 23:11) The nations composing the seventh world power have been the places for the chief operation of the commercial wing of Satan's organization, and these are in for their part of a complete drubbing.

The doom of every part of Satan's organization is written, and there is no escape for Big Business. "Thy riches, and thy fairs, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, that arc in thee, and in all thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the seas in the day of thy ruin." (27: 27) Those who have been used by the Devil to build this mighty machine of oppression must, by the power of Jehovah exercised against them and the organization, be brought to know that Jehovah is God. He has power and resources vast and deep like unto the sea, and which will engulf the entire organization of Big Business and its military and naval equipment, and make it disappear from the sight of heaven and earth, even as the Egyptians were engulfed in the Red sea. "And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all." (Rev. 18:21) And then the wicked organization shall completely fall. (Ezek. 27: 34) The sea, or "depths of the waters", in this text pictures Jehovah's power under the lash of the "east wind", The Christ dashing to pieces the enemy organization.

Fear has now taken hold of the mighty men of this wicked organization, but the worst is yet to come. Verses twenty-nine to thirty-one inclusive describe the

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distress of those who have put their trust in riches, making gold their god, and who therefore have worshiped this part of the Devil religion. These have looked upon the commerce of the seventh world power as that which could not be broken, but they shall see that mighty organization go down. "And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, What city is like Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of the sea?" (27: 32) This conclusion is further supported by the following texts: Ezekiel 26:15-17; Revelation 18:17-19. Every part of Satan's organization shall be destroyed, and these texts specifically refer to the commercial division thereof. All shall drink of the wrath of God. "And all the Icings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea." — Jer. 25:22.

The prophetic picture here given is for the special benefit and instruction of God's faithful covenant people. Those who love God now will stay clear of Big Business and devote themselves exclusively to the kingdom and will do "this one thing". Some who heard the call to the kingdom committed the fatal error of going after wealth and riches and were 'drowned in the sea'. "But they that will be rich, fall into temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is the root of all evil; which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows. But thou, O man of God, flee these things [of Tyre]; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness." (1 Tim.

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6:9-11) Those who have made a covenant with the Lord, and who have then become negligent thereof and become entangled with Big Business, will have more cause for weeping and wailing than the worldly merchants. Not only will they lose their earthly possessions, but they will lose their hope of life everlasting. — Rev. 20:13.

It appears strange to many that a man poor in this world's goods who enters politics and is elected to a public office and receives a reasonable salary, as fixed by law for his services, yet, in spite of all this, within a few years is a man of great material wealth. What is the reason? Big Business provides the wealth for such in consideration of special services in behalf of their selfish and oppressive schemes. Men in public office who render these services are described as "kings", that is to say, the earthly visible rulers of Satan's organization, and concerning which the Lord says: "When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many people; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise." (27:33) For this reason public office has become a private grab and office-holders are corrupted by the ill-got gains of the commercial wing of Satan's wicked organization operated on sea and on land.

Today the small mercantile shippers who take note are astounded at the grip hold Big Business has on every thing. The small trader has attempted to carry on a legitimate business separate from and independent of the big giants, but the mighty ones who control the commerce have almost completely crushed the life out of all small traders. Foreseeing this great

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act of injustice practiced by a few, the Lord caused Ezekiel to write: "All the inhabitants of the isles shall be astonished at thee, and their kings shall be sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their countenance. The merchants among the people shall hiss at thee; thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt be any more." (27: 35, 36) But the day of these giant commercial oppressors is about at an end, and their big machines, together with all other parts of Satan's organization, shall go down; and then the people, small dealers and others will hiss contemptuously at the bare mention of these commercial giants, and never again will God permit such pernicious things to trouble the peoples of earth.

During the World War God's earthly organization was made "desolate" and a perpetual hissing at the instance of the clergymen, and Big Business, represented by Tyre, stood by and concerning God's faithful company said: 'Aha, she is broken and will trouble us no more.' For this wickedness Jehovah in due time will recompense Tyre with some of her own medicine. "Yea, and what have ye to do with me, 0 Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head: because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things: the children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border. Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompence upon your own head: and I will sell your sons and your

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daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the Lord hath spoken it." (Joel 3:4-8) God will vindicate his name and his organization.

God has provided the things of the earth for the benefit of obedient mankind. Therefore not only is the day of relief for the people coming, but the time when the product of the earth, which Big Business has used to exploit the people to enrich themselves, God will take away from them and give to the people that obey and serve him, that they may with these natural resources glorify the name of the great Creator who has made them. Then shall be fulfilled the words of the prophecy: "And her [Tyre's] merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord: it shall not be treasured nor laid up; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing. " —Isa. 23:18.

LEADERS OF TYRE

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 28)

Then the prophet of God addresses the leaders or rulers of the commercial division of Satan's organization. "Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord God, Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am a God, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas; yet thou art a man, and not God, though thou set thine heart as the heart of God." (28:2) The word here rendered "prince" is the same as that in Daniel 9: 25 rendered in "Messiah the Prince". It refers to one that stands boldly out to the front and makes announcement of the public policies of the people, therefore the leader. The

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prince of Tyre is clearly distinguished in this chapter from the king of Tyre, and therefore the prince seems to clearly picture or have reference to the visible ruling factors or dictators of the policies of Satan's commercial system of the world and who are hence spokesmen on earth for Satan in this division of his organization. These mighty ones control the big newspapers, the colleges, the universities of various kinds, including the theological, technical, medical and law schools; they control the greater part of the radio facilities and other means of communicating to the people, the purpose being to prevent anything's being carried to the people that might reflect upon Big Business.

This crowd is proud and haughty, and of them the prophet says: "Thine heart is lifted up." They are a self-admiring, self-important, dominating and arrogant class, and because of their riches consider themselves gods, and they therefore assume that position amongst the people. The great banking giants that control the commerce of the seas and the land, and who operate within the borders of the seventh world power today, assume this very attitude. These mighty men are set forth as models for the youth of the land, particularly for those young men who spend their early days in the colleges and universities where they are taught to learn everything that is anti-God and anti-kingdom. These strong men of commerce and finance are idolized by the younger and weaker elements among them. Their own selfishness is their god and they believe that "money is power". They heap it up regardless of the amount of suffering which this entails upon the common people. These men as-

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sume the positions of gods and claim themselves to be benefactors of the world, and they demand respect and veneration and claim that they are justly entitled to rule and to dictate the policy of the nations.

As an example of this, recently a newspaper reporter attempted to have an interview with one of these big financial bosses at a railway station in the city of London, where he had just arrived, and that self-appointed god denounced the poor reporter because he had the audacity to even speak to him. But let the people take note that the prosperity of these visible agents of Satan draws near to an end, when God's indignation shall be openly expressed against them. The Lord by his prophet tells this self-admiring crowd who claim to be gods: "Thou art a man, and not God." This strongly proves that the "prince of Tyrus" refers to the visible representatives of Satan's organization who by reason of their wealth dictate the policy of the nations of earth, and particularly by and through the seventh world power. At Armageddon these will come to fully realize the meaning of the statement: "Thou art a man, and not God." "Arise, 0 Lord; let not man prevail; let the heathen be judged in thy sight. Put them in fear, 0 Lord; that the nations may know themselves to be but men." (Ps. 9:19,20) "Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of the Lord's wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he shall make even a speedy riddance of all them that dwell in the land."  — Zeph. 1:18.

These cold-blooded, conscienceless, commercial representatives of Satan think themselves wiser than all

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other men, and even deny the very existence of the prophets, such as the Prophet Daniel; therefore the Lord in derision says to them: "Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from thee." (28: 3) Daniel gave all credit to Jehovah God for the deep and secret things about which he spoke. (Dan. 2: 22) The "wise men" of Satan's commercial organization, and who are wise therefore in their own conceits, regard themselves as incomparably greater than the prophets of Jehovah. They are past masters at manipulating schemes and making secret agreements and in detective operations, which they call secret service, and which is used to oppress the peoples in humble walk. They are exceedingly wise in making deals, compromising, and in giving bribes and corrupting public officials, and in operating secret and subtle schemes to obtain control of patents and inventions, and of laboratories and research work, and financing the same for their own selfish aggrandizement. They scour the seas and scrape the land to obtain control of the commerce and the markets, of the mineral deposits, power sites and power plants, and every thing of whatsoever kind that might be used to produce material wealth. They are of the opinion that no secret, even of Jehovah God, is hidden from them, because they deny God and think themselves to hold all the secrets of the world.

With the cunning and sagacity of their father Satan these mighty men have greatly enriched themselves, and because they have been able to do so they lift up their own eyes and in the eyes of their understudies they are great. The Lord says to them: "With thy wisdom and with thine understanding thou hast

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gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures: by thy great wisdom, and by thy traffic, hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart is lifted up because of thy riches." (28:4,5) These words of the prophet are exactly in harmony with the utterances of James the apostle. (5:1-6) These men, the visible representatives of Satan, the commercial wing of his organization, rely upon the power of their wealth, "and they say, How doth God know? and is there knowledge in the Most High? Behold, these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches." (Ps. 73:11,12) They depend upon their power and their riches to make the earth a suitable place for man and that they have the ability thus to robe the earth with their own glory and beauty. But the Lord says: "They that trust in their wealth, and boast themselves in the multitude of their riches; none of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him. For he seeth that wise men die, likewise the fool and the brutish person perish, and leave their wealth to others." (Ps. 49:6,7,10) "He that trusteth in his riches shall fall." — Prov. 11:28.

The Lord then tells these representatives of Satan why they must go down: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Because thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God; behold, therefore, I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations; and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy brightness. They shall bring thee down to the pit, and thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain in the midst of the seas." (28: 6-8) With reference to ancient Tyre the 'strangers of the

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terrible nations' were Nebuchadnezzar and his armies; and thus is illustrated the Lord's means of performing his "strange act", which will strike terror to the heart of the prince of Satan's commercial organization that rules and dominates the people. The mighty princes of Tyre will die like those of a storm-wrecked ship at sea. The wide distribution of the booklet The Kingdom, The Hope of the World, amongst these financial giants is notice of what they may expect to come to pass, but they will not take heed to it.

Jehovah says to the proud and arrogant: "Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee, I am God? but thou shalt be a man, and no God, in the hand of him that slayeth thee." (28:9) The braggadocio of the "prince of Tyre", Big Business and leaders, will come to naught and these will fall before the assault of the King of kings, who is Jehovah's Executive Officer, and who at Jehovah's command does these terrible things: "Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most Mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty. And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things." (Ps. 45:3,4) Jehovah will rise, as he says, and shake terribly the earth, that is, the organization of Satan that is visible to man, and the power of that wicked organization will cease. "In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles, and to the bats; to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the Lord, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his

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nostrils." (Isa. 2:20-22) "But the Lord is with me as a mighty terrible one; therefore my persecutors shall stumble, and they shall not prevail; they shall be greatly ashamed; for they shall not prosper; their everlasting confusion shall never be forgotten." (Jer. 20:11) In that terrible day their riches will avail them nothing: "Riches profit not in the day of wrath; but righteousness delivereth from death." (Prov. 11: 4) These proud ones have spurned the words of wisdom recorded in God's Book, the Bible, and have relied upon their own wisdom and the strength of their own organization. They have not given any heed to the advice: "Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few." (Eccl. 5:2) "God is not a man, . . . neither the son of man . . .: hath he said, and shall he not do it?" — Num. 23:19.

Jehovah is now sending forth his witnesses to bear testimony of warning to those branches of Satan's organization. These witnesses need expect no comfort from such now; nor when they appear before them, shall they fear or tremble, and surely they should not assume an apologetic attitude when presenting to them the message of truth. Those who trust in the Lord will be calm, firm, and speak the truth in kindness. Therefore Jehovah says to his witnesses that when they come in contact with the princes of modern Tyre "I, even I, am he that comforteth you; who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die, and of the son of man which shall be made as grass; and forgettest the Lord thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the

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earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where is the fury of the oppressor?"  — Isa. 51:12,13.

These princes of modern Tyre, to wit, leaders in Britain and America's sea commerce or Big Business, hold themselves forth as the honorable men of the earth to whom the common people should bow down and beg their favor; but the days of their arrogance draw near to an end, because the Lord says to them, "I am against thee, 0 Tyrus." (26:3) "Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city [the bestower of crowns, Roth.], whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth? The Lord of hosts hath purposed it, to stain the pride of all glory, and to bring into contempt all the honourable of the earth. He stretched out his hand over the sea; he shook the kingdoms: the Lord hath given a commandment against the merchant city, to destroy the strong holds thereof. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for your strength is laid waste." — Isa. 23: 8,9,11,14.

Jehovah's decree is written and cannot be reversed. "Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers; for I have spoken it, saith the Lord God." (28:10) "Thus saith the Lord, For three transgressions of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant: but I will send a fire on the wall of Tyrus, which shall devour the palaces thereof." — Amos 1: 9,10.

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Whomsoever of God's people the princes of modem Tyre captured they delivered up. Modern Tyre and her princes shall die the death of the unclean. (Gen. 17:11,13) These have lived wantonly and luxuriously in utter disregard of the rights of other men. They have trafficked in human flesh and blood for their own selfish gain and have taken away from their hired laborers that which was justly due the babies of the poor. They have burned the property of the poor, destroyed their food, persecuted and oppressed men and women of good will who dared render aid and comfort to the poor and their children. The coal operators of West Virginia and Kentucky and other places are glaring examples of such cruelty. They have carried on their wicked operations within the borders of the land called "Christendom", and mislabeled "the land of the free and the home of the brave". These princes of Tyre have marked America with the inscription: "The land of the thieves and the home of the slaves." They disregard the Word of the Lord and his warning message brought to them by his witnesses, and their end draweth nigh.

THE DEVIL

The master and chief ruler carrying on all the wickedness upon the earth is the Devil himself. The princes of Tyre are merely his tools and visible representatives. At the command of Jehovah Ezekiel speaks concerning the Devil: "Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord God, Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty." (28:12) He is superior to the 'princes of Tyrus', therefore

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the invisible ruler and god of the world. (John 12: 31; 16: 8,11) Jehovah is the King of His organization. (Jer. 10:10) The mimic god Satan is the king or god of his organization. (2 Cor. 4:4) It has been said by the ecclesiastical commentators that the language of Ezekiel here used refers to the man Hiram, who was king of Tyre, because he made a league with Solomon and manned his ships. (1 Ki. 9:11-14,26-28) But this conclusion could not be correct, because God could not say to Hiram: "Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty." These words are certainly addressed to the invisible ruler of Tyre, that is, Satan the Devil, and refers to the time when he was created and when his name was Lucifer. He was the glorious work of Jehovah God by and through Jehovah's Son the Logos. It is likely that Lucifer was the first creative work of Jehovah, by his Son, in the creation of creatures, and was the final word or seal in the realm of proportions and beauty and showed forth the wisdom of God's creative power and not the wisdom of Lucifer. Jehovah therefore says to him: "Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created." — 28:13.

Modern commentators limit the application of this text to the king of the ancient city of Tyre. The words of description do apply to ancient Tyre, but that is not the limit of the application. Under Hiram Tyre attained unto its greatest glory. It appears that the

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dominion of this king extended over the west slopes of Mount Lebanon, famous for its great cedar trees. In Ezekiel 31: 3 it is recorded: "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon . . . , and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs." In verses eight and nine of the same chapter these cedars are spoken of as being in the garden of God, in the garden of Eden. The broader application of these texts, however, is to the real garden of Eden, the garden of God. (Gen. 2:8) It is not necessary to conclude that Lucifer was bodily in Eden, but that his attention was there to things of Eden because Jehovah had appointed him to that position and to exercise power there. The statement of his being in Eden is to be understood as a favorable and beautifying background or setting for Lucifer. Eden manifestly was in the jurisdiction of Lucifer to which Jehovah God had assigned him.

The precious stones mentioned in the thirteenth verse were doubtless available to the king of Tyre, because the merchants of Sheba and Raamah exhibited in the fairs and doubtless offered for sale "all precious stones". (27:22) It must be presumed that the king of Tyre arrayed himself with these precious stones that his beauty might be enhanced and that the people might behold his glory. These precious stones would cause him to appear in a blaze of multicolored light. The Scriptures do not say that God covered Lucifer with such precious stones, and in view of his subsequent actions we may well presume that the precious stones as applied to Lucifer are really descriptive of his original pride. He gave attention to his personal appearance as a means of adding

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to his brilliancy, and thus he began to develop vanity, which led him to desire the worship of creatures.

Men who are children of the Devil have frequently done this very thing, and it is natural for the sons to follow the example of the father. Kings and high dignitaries in the church organizations, such as the pope of Rome, bishops, cardinals and others, employ precious stones and deck themselves therewith for the purpose of enhancing their outward beauty and therefore that they might influence others to give them honor and worship.

According to Rotherham this language is used: "And of gold was the work of thy timbrels and thy flutes within thee." The tabret or timbrel was used by the Israelites to praise Jehovah. "And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances." (Ex. 15: 20) "Praise him with the timbrel and dance; praise him with stringed instruments and organs." (Ps. 150:4) It thus appears that Lucifer was outfitted or fully equipped with the means of praising the Lord, and he should have employed these means to that end. He was without doubt one of the "morning stars" that did praise the Creator on one occasion. (Job 38:7) These musical instruments or means of praise to the Lord are spoken of as an ornament. "Again I will build thee, and thou shalt be built, O virgin of Israel: thou shalt again be adorned with thy tabrets [margin, timbrels], and shalt go forth in the dances of them that make merry." (Jer. 31:4) The Hebrew word for "tabret" is toph. Instead of using the timbrel or tabret (toph) to give praise to Jehovah his Creator, Lucifer employed it to

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prepare Tophet for the worship of himself, the mimic, and therefore the false, god. He inveigled the Jews to thus practice the Devil religion. "And they have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire; which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart." — Jer. 7: 31.

"Pipes," used in the foregoing text, denotes something pierced, and may refer either to instruments or to perforated gems. In either event Lucifer used the "pipes" with which he was supplied to pierce, curse and blaspheme Jehovah God, instead of giving praise to him. (Lev. 24:11; Num. 23: 8, 25) Jehovah equipped Lucifer for useful service. "In the day thou wast created were they prepared." (Roth.) Thus equipped, Lucifer perverted the use of his equipment and used the same to dishonor God's name.

ANOINTED CHERUB

That Lucifer was an officer in God's organization is shown by the following verse: "Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire." (28:14) Other translators render the first part of this verse thus: "Thou wast a cherub with outspread covering (wings)." (Leeser) "Thou wast the anointed cherub that covered." (Roth.; also R.V.) This statement of God's Word shows that the prophecy here given is applicable to that which is far higher than the visible, earthly king of ancient Tyre, and, therefore, that its application properly is to the invisible ruler Satan the Devil.

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Translators differ as to the meaning of the name "cherub"; but according to the meaning of the term, as used in the Scriptures, cherub or cherubs are ministers of God's appointment to guard and keep and maintain the justice and judgment of Jehovah. Cherubims were placed on guard to keep the way of the tree of life in Eden. (Gen. 3: 24) Cherubims with wings covered the mercy seat of the ark of the covenant. (Ex. 37:9) Probably the term applies both to the office and to the creature in that office appointed by Jehovah and assigned to the sacred duties of the office. Jehovah is said to dwell among the cherubims. (Ps. 99:1) The Hebrew word literally means cherubim, and it is reasonable to conclude that in the beginning Lucifer was the only cherub having to do with the garden of Eden, and that he was charged with covering or guarding "the tree of life also in the midst of the garden", in order that man might not partake thereof until God's due time. When Lucifer became a traitor he would no longer keep the way covered, or guard the way to the tree of life, but evidently he advised Adam and Eve to go and eat of that tree. The eviction of man from Eden immediately followed, and Jehovah placed faithful officers on guard to keep the way and to close up access by man to the tree of life. It is certain that if Lucifer had continued to cover that way, and to duly perform his official duties, there would have been no necessity for Jehovah to appoint other officers to perform that duty.

Lucifer was appointed to his office by Jehovah, and concerning this the Scriptures are quite clear: "When I appointed thee in the holy mount of God." (Roth.) "I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy moun-

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tain of God." (R.V.) The statement here made could not possibly have reference to the fact that Hiram the king of Tyre furnished cedar timber for the building of the temple on the holy mount Moriah at Jerusalem. It must mean that Jehovah God had extended his universal kingdom or organization to include the earth with his creatures Adam and Eve upon it and had given Lucifer the office of cherub to cover or look after God's interests on the earth. Jehovah assigned him to this distinctive position. His official position permitted Lucifer to have access to God in his heavenly courts. (Job 2:1, 2) Had Lucifer been grateful for his position he would have covered it faithfully. His ingratitude for favors received is proof of his selfishness, and ingratitude for such favors always opens the way to disaster.

The walking of Lucifer up and down in the midst of the stones of fire, as stated in the fourteenth verse, must mean more than merely walking about amid a fiery blaze of precious stones. He could communicate with other spirit creatures who were glorious as blazing stones, and he could walk amidst these, and he did induce many of such spirit creatures to join him in his rebellion. God's chosen people on the earth, and anointed in Christ, are designated as "living stones". Satan has walked up and down in the earth amidst these people of God and has used his power to interfere with them and to cause them to fall while undergoing fiery tests or purging, and he has succeeded in causing many to deflect and fall away. He has appeared as an angel of light amongst them. God says to him, "I will destroy thee, 0 covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire," meaning that he may

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no more have access to these stones of fire, or creatures of light.

Continuing to address the king of Tyrus God's prophet says: "Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee." (28:15) These words could not possibly apply to Hiram or to any other earthly king, because no one of such was ever perfect. Adam was the only perfect man on the earth, and he was never a king. Jehovah God created Lucifer, and God's work is perfect. "[Jehovah] is the [great] Rock, his work is perfect; for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he." (Deut. 32:4) "As for God, his way is perfect." (Ps. 18: 30) It is therefore certain that at the time of his creation Lucifer was perfect, and he was bound to be in harmony with God at the beginning; thus he continued 'perfect until [unrighteousness, R.V.; wickedness, Leeser; perversity, Roth.] was found in thee'. Becoming selfish and ambitious he corrupted his moral existence and the purpose for which he was created. He distorted the truth about the creation of God and caused man to fall away from Jehovah's favor and to be put to death. "He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth." (John 8: 44) That does not mean from the beginning of Lucifer, but from man's beginning, because it was man that he murdered. The perversity of Lucifer began after he was assigned to his official position by Jehovah.

Lucifer began the commercial enterprise of the earth, and this is proven by the words: "By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst

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of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, 0 covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire." (28:16) He yielded to the willful desire to make merchandise of man. He foresaw a vast earthly sea of humanity which would flow from this perfect man and perfect woman. He determined that he would begin at the fountain head and exploit that sea of humanity. When the human race had increased to multitudes like unto the sea, then the Devil out of the symbolic sea brought forth the beastly thing of his own creation, and which thing or organization he has used to oppress and kill mankind. He began by resorting to violence, and his ambitious desire has filled his beastly organization with great violence. He incited Cain to commit murder by violence. He filled the earth with violence that prevailed in Noah's day. Satan, therefore, is the creator of the wicked system of commerce that oppresses humankind, and he has practiced this from the beginning of man. Therefore the great marine-commercial kingdom of Tyre fitly pictures that part of the wicked organization of Satan, and which is manifested specifically in the seventh world power, and which is extended over the earth, and which has exploited and oppressed the human race. Nothing could more fitly picture the mighty commerce that controls the affairs of earth. As ancient Tyre extended her commerce to the ends of the earth, so modern Tyre has extended her commerce to the utmost parts of the earth, and which commercial operations by sea have been marked and continue to be marked with great violence. It has been the mighty navies of the

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countries composing the seventh world power in particular that have controlled the commerce of the seas for such world powers.

The pursuit of great wealth by means of commercial enterprise is always accompanied by great violence, selfishness, pride and ambition, and the men or giants of commerce permit nothing to stand in the way of accomplishment of their desired ends. The commerce by sea and land has been the most effective part of Satan's organization for exploiting and oppressing the peoples of earth. The fact that Jehovah has given so much attention thereto in his Word is proof of its power for wrongdoing and its operation in the way of wickedness. Concerning these selfish men who have operated in the earth as Satan's tools the Lord says: "Therefore pride compasseth them about as a chain; violence covereth them as a garment. Their eyes stand out with fatness: they have more than heart could wish. They are corrupt, and speak wickedly concerning oppression: they speak loftily. They set their mouth against the heavens; and their tongue walketh through the earth. Behold, these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches." (Ps. 73:6-9,12) Such is a description of the mighty men who have controlled the commerce of the seas. "For the rich men thereof are full of violence, and the inhabitants thereof have spoken lies, and their tongue is deceitful in their mouth." (Mic. 6:12) These mighty and rich men are generally put in a place of prominence in the church organizations of the seventh world power, and are designated "the principal of the flock", but they have no faith in God nor in his Word. It was the

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spirit of violence that stirred up Tyre to say "Aha" when Jerusalem was by violence overthrown. It was the same spirit of violence and wickedness that caused the mighty and the rich and their tools to say "Aha'' when God's people were by violence thrown down by the seventh world power in 1914 to 1918. To these commercial giants in and about "Christendom" Jehovah's witnesses must now testify.

CAST OUT

Lucifer sinned against light; therefore he committed the unpardonable sin, and for such there is no forgiveness or pardon; hence God said to him: "Thou hast sinned; therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God." That sin brought great reproach upon the name of Jehovah. Satan has since used religion and the commercial wing of his organization in particular to bring reproach and violence upon the people of God.

God then announces his purpose concerning Satan, saying: "I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God." The more literal rendering is: "I profaned thee out of the mountain of God." (Roth., margin) Lucifer profaned the name of God and the name of Christ; and he has profaned God's sanctuary class by using the seventh world power to east it down to the ground and to tread it under foot, which was done during the period of the World War. Jehovah now deals with Satan as the profaned thing, and likewise he deals with those who knowingly and willingly resort to Satan's methods of profaning the name of God. No more is Satan permitted to continue in heaven even to make reports, but he is cast out

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of heaven because he is a defiled and a defiling thing. Satan has now set up his astonishing abomination on the earth in the holy place, to wit, the League of his nations. He still appears to keep ground space, but soon both Satan and his organization shall go into the abyss. To him God says: "I will destroy thee . . . from the midst of the stones of fire." Jehovah therefore becomes an Abaddon or destroyer unto Satan. (Rev. 9:11; see Light, Book One, page 145) This means the end of Satan in heaven and no longer shall his rod rest upon the lot of the righteous people of God on the earth and soon he shall be killed. (Ps. 125:3) Notice must be served on his representatives.

Regardless of all the advantageous things with which a creature is endowed, if he does not fear God and serve him he is certain to come to a bad end. This is proven by the course Lucifer took. "Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty; thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee." (28:17) Without a doubt Lucifer was originally a creature of beauty. But God did not make him "perfect in beauty" to cause him to fall. Lucifer should have appreciated the fact that all he possessed was a gift from Jehovah God and he should have given God the credit and honor therefor. The proper rule for the creature is stated in these words: "I will praise thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made: marvellous are thy works: and that my soul knoweth right well." — Ps. 139:14.

Men have made the same grave mistake at all times by attempting to search out and exhibit their own

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glory and beauty to others. "For men to search [out] their own glory is not glory." (Prov. 25:27) When one revels in his own beauty and his own attainments he is deceiving himself. For one to seek to shine as beautiful in the eyes of others is a dangerous course for him. Says the Proverb (31:30): "Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain." The only safe course is for one to give glory to God for whatever he has and to fear him and to serve him with gladness of heart. Lucifer sought his own glory and therefore he is doomed to a disastrous end. The same must be true of every creature who seeks his own glory. Jesus told his disciples that the exaltation of creatures is an abomination in God's sight; and manifestly the reason is that such is the course that Satan took and has induced other creatures to take. (Luke 16:15) Paul warned those of the early church of the same danger, but many who claimed to be followers of Christ have ignored the warning. In this day, when the light of truth from God's temple is shining upon his people, there is absolutely no excuse to give praise and exaltation to men. To seek praise for oneself or to willingly receive praise from others for one's own attainments and one's beauty, is dangerous and will lead to disaster, if persisted in. Lucifer was proud because of his beauty and thereby corrupted himself. He ceased from the fear of God which is the beginning of wisdom and which course the wise always pursue. His wisdom possessed in the beginning he corrupted, and turned it to cunning subterfuge, conscienceless diplomacy, and to artfully hiding darkness in his heart but outwardly appearing with brightness.

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The diplomacy of the seventh world power exceeds that of all other peoples that ever lived on the earth, and it came through Satan's coaching. Diplomacy is another name for fraud and deceit. Honesty must be had and practiced by the creature that pleases God. Lucifer should have appreciated that fact and given God the glory, but he glorified himself. Men have followed in his course from the beginning of time till now, but Jehovah's witnesses will now put into actual practice the truism long ago written, to "learn . . . not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another. For who maketh thee to differ from another? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? Now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?" — 1 Cor. 4:6,7.

Because of his pride and self-glory God says to Lucifer: "I will cast thee to the ground." According to another translator: "Upon the earth did I cast thee, before kings did I set thee, that they might look at thee." (Roth.) This statement is exactly in harmony with that of Revelation that the Devil 'was cast out of heaven onto the earth', and thus he is humiliated to the ground. The "kings" here mentioned are the kings who shall be with Christ Jesus in his kingdom. (Rev. 1:6) God is now setting the Devil before the remnant by opening the eyes of their understanding to the hideousness of this creature the Devil and giving to them a vision of his wicked organization. Now they behold Satan as the king of Tyre who has organized the great commercial system of the sea, as well as of the land, and by which he has exploited

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the people and which he has used in conjunction with the hypocritical and fraudulent, religious systems within said land.

It must be humiliating to the Devil now to be exposed to the gaze and contempt of those whom he has abused and falsely accused and whom he would now immediately destroy except for the protection provided them by Jehovah God. The kings of earth do not now recognize that Satan rules the world, and Satan hates Jehovah's witnesses who are now calling the attention of the rulers and of the people to the fact that Satan is the wicked and invisible ruler of the world, and that his destruction approaches. Those of the remnant who remain on earth during Armageddon will see the complete humiliation of Satan and the men of the earth who are the rulers under the direction of Satan. These rulers will also see the humiliation of Satan, because God has decreed that they shall know that Jehovah is God, and that he will humiliate the wicked one in the eyes of all.

Lucifer was created perfect and made a part of God's organization, even as Adam was made perfect and was a part of God's organization which is clean and pure. Jehovah further pronounced his denunciation against Satan the wicked one in these words: "Thou hast denied thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffic: therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee; and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth, in the sight of all them that behold thee." (28:18) Other renderings of the text illuminate it somewhat. "In the unrighteousness of thy traffic thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries." (R.V.)

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"In the perversity of thy traffic thou didst profane thy sanctuaries." (Roth.) "Through the wickedness of thy commerce didst thou profane thy sanctuaries." — Leeser.

The basic thought of "sanctuary" is 'to be clean'. In Psalm 68:35 it is written: "O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places [sanctuary, Roth.]." It represents the place where the creature does worship to the Creator God. He must worship in purity and in cleanness. Originally Lucifer was assigned to a place that was clean, pure and holy, and there it was his privilege and duty to render worship to Jehovah God. When he was assigned to give attention to the garden of Eden as the covering cherub that sphere of office became one of Lucifer's sanctuaries, in which he was duty-bound to worship God in purity and in holiness to the Lord. There Lucifer became profane; and for the selfish purpose of trafficking in the human family, exploiting and making merchandise of mankind, he defiled his sacred office and trust, which he held by appointment from Jehovah, and that particular part of God's organization was profaned and defiled by Lucifer. That holy sanctuary, where thought should have been given to the honest, pure and holy things unto God, and where Jehovah alone should have been worshiped, Lucifer turned into a place of merchandise for his own selfish purposes. Satan has ever directed his dupes along the same unrighteous lines. He has established many religions and has captured "organised Christianity", and his religious services are marked by the same merchandising spirit, and these have defiled God's earthly sanctuary. It was so with the Jews, and for this

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reason Jesus said to them that had turned the temple into a place of merchandise:" Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise." (John 2:14-16) "And [he] said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves." (Matt. 21:13) The church of "Christendom", where God should be worshiped in holiness, is turned into a house of merchandise, and the giants of big commerce boss the proceedings; and the worship is carried on in a formal way, that these may not be offended.

Satan's course leads him to destruction; hence God in his decree says: 'I will bring fire from the midst of thee, and it shall devour thee.' This fire pictures a spontaneous combustion, a self-bursting into flames, hence the course of a suicide, and which course Satan has taken since he began his wicked work. The Devil is as sulphur or pitch, and the Lord will apply the heat and cause that wicked one Satan to burst into flames of destruction, as it is written: "And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch." — Isa. 34:9,10.

Jehovah by his beloved King has ousted Satan from heaven and has cast him down to the earth and thus He causes Satan to be filled with burning rage and therefore he 'hath great wrath and a short time'. (Rev. 12:12) The words "to ashes upon the earth" picture the destruction of Satan which takes place after he is cast out of heaven. Both Satan and his wicked organization shall suffer destruction. "And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall

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do this, saith the Lord of hosts." (Mal. 4:3) Satan is responsible for his own destruction, but God destroys him.

The killing of Satan and the destroying of his organization will be one of the means of teaching other creatures that Jehovah is the supreme and only true and almighty God. "All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee; thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more." (28:19) For many centuries Satan has been a terrifying creature. He has used his preachers of hell-fire and brimstone to terrify many and to cause them to seek refuge in the hypocritical organization of "churchianity" and to join in defaming God's name. He has used his commercial agents to terrify men and compel them to yield to all manner of oppression. The men of earth today are afraid to oppose his wicked commercial organized power. The terrible destruction that shall come upon Satan and his organization will give astonishment to the peoples of earth and will inspire fear in all who come to know God, so that they will shudder even at the thought of the course Satan has taken and of his disastrous end. Those creatures that have willingly pursued a like course of Satan after having received some light and learned that Jehovah is God shall likewise be destroyed. Concerning Satan and his followers it is written: "And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh [that shall be given life upon the earth]." — Isa. 66:24.

Religion has ever been the chief means by which Satan has deceived the people and caused them to blaspheme God's holy name. Commerce or merchandise is the chief means employed by Satan whereby

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the people are oppressed and devoured. By religion he has exhibited his serpentine qualities, and by his merchandise or commerce he has more fully exhibited the qualities symbolized by the dragon or devourer. Within the borders of the seventh world power Satan has worked with much success his fraudulent and deceptive religious schemes. Within the seventh world power Satan has builded the greatest commercial machine of all time, and which has brought the greatest amount of sorrow to the people, and the greatest amount of reproach to Jehovah God's name. Within the borders of the seventh world power crime has abounded as nowhere else under the sun. Violence and wickedness within these borders has gone to seed.

Jehovah God, knowing the end from the beginning, used Jerusalem to foreshadow "Christendom" and Tyre to foreshadow the commercial division of Satan's mighty organization, and more specifically that part of the commercial organization that operates upon the seas. With oppressive Big Business at an end there would be no more inducement for wars, hence no more reason for the building of mighty navies. With false religion destroyed the people will turn to the worship of the true God. Let the people now take courage and rejoice that Satan and his entire organization soon shall perish and God will then bless all who love and serve him in spirit and in truth. Let all the people of good will, and who desire righteousness, now take their stand on the side of Jehovah God and get in line for the blessings that God has in store for them. Let them learn now to measure up to the requirements which the Lord has prescribed for those whom he will approve. — Mic. 6: 8.

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AGAINST ZIDON

Jehovah does not disclose all of Satan's organization in one picture. He shows it to his people from different viewpoints, which enables those who love him to discern the hideous thing that has so long defamed the name of Almighty God. While there are three general divisions of Satan's organization, to wit, religious, commercial and political, there are subdivisions of these which show the minute workings of Satan's wicked machine.

The commercial giants are the men behind the screens whom Satan employs to carry forward his dark and powerful schemes, while religionists act as the hypocritical smoke-screen by which the people are blinded to the truth, and the politicians talk long and loud making many false pretenses and promises as to what shall be done for the people and thus to hold the people in line. The mighty mind of Satan the Devil directs the entire machine. God's day has come to show up the whole wicked organization, that the people may know the truth and that the name of Jehovah God may be vindicated. Manifestly this is the reason why Jehovah exhibits this hideous organization in detail and from many viewpoints.

The prophet of God now directs his prophecy against Zidon. "Son of man, set thy face against Zidon, and prophesy against it, and say, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am against thee, 0 Zidon; and I will be glorified in the midst of thee; and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her." (28: 21, 22) Zidon was an older city than Tyre, but Tyre surpassed it in importance; and this is in-

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dicated by the lesser mention of it in the Scriptures. It was doubtless at one time a great city, since Joshua calls it "great Zidon". (Josh. 11: 8) The inhabitants practiced the Devil religion under the form of Baal or Ashtoreth worship. (1 Ki. 11:5,33) Zidon furnished mariners for its neighbor city Tyre. (Ezek. 27:8) Zidon means "fortress". (Young) Another author also says the name is from the Hebrew word meaning "to lie alongside, that is to say, to watch, to catch in the sense of catching fish". Another author (Gesenius) says the word means "fishing or fisheries".

Zidon therefore seems to picture or represent a special division of Satan's organization that is a tool or ally of the commercial part of that organization operating particularly by sea and also exploiting the people. It represents a tool or ally that fishes for those who will bite at their bait and come into the nets or traps set for them. The description therefore fits the advertising agencies or tools of commerce. It is a propaganda organization that lays nets and sets baited hooks with beards on them for the unsuspecting. Therefore it must represent the publishing agencies, the newspapers and magazines, and in these more modern days the radio, which commerce or Big Business seeks to control and uses almost exclusively to advertise its commercial schemes. The newspapers, magazines, or radio stations that do not want to yield to the dictates of Big Business can scarcely survive. The broadcasting of the truth concerning Big Business is inimical to its interests, and only the Lord can make it possible for the truth to reach the people by means of radio. These various means of communicating to the people Satan desperately attempts to con-

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trol for his organization. The public press is especially used, always in an effort to mold public opinion, to suit the side of the commercial powers.

Jehovah has declared that the message of truth shall reach into Zidon, and hence unto that which Zidon represents. (Jer. 25:15,22) "For I will send into her pestilence, and blood into her streets; and the wounded shall be judged in the midst of her by the sword upon her on every side; and they shall know that I am the Lord." — 28: 23.

The public press would have furnished a splendid channel for the publication of the truth of and concerning Jehovah and his kingdom, but the Big Business heads, aided and abetted by other wings of the Devil's organization, to wit, the clergy and conscienceless politicians, have kept the message of truth out of the papers and out of the magazines. The public press makes various excuses, saying that this publication is not news or this might offend some big preachers. Radio stations make the same excuse, although the law governing the same declares that they shall be used for public convenience, public interest and public necessity. Nothing could be more convenient or upbuilding to the people than the truth. Satan desperately attempts to keep this away from the people. God therefore declares against this wing of the Devil's organization: "Behold me! against thee, 0 Zidon, therefore will I get myself glory in thy midst."  — 28:22, Roth.

The glory which Jehovah will get will be his righteous victory over this powerful instrument in the wicked organization of Satan. When Jeho-

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vah's judgments are executed against Satan's organization, Big Business will no longer be able to hide from the people the fact that Jehovah is the only true God and that his kingdom is the one and only hope for the world. They will no longer be able to use the public press to blind the people to their own unrighteous schemes. When the Lord says, "I will send into her pestilence, and blood into her streets," this would mean death to the powerful ally of Big Business, so that no longer could the truth be kept back from the people. The Lord God is now proceeding with the publication of his message of truth, which shows that his pestilence is already upon Zidon. God's purpose is that those who handle the public press, as well as others, shall know that he is the Almighty One.

Satan, by the various divisions of his organization, attempts to prevent the people from knowing that Jehovah is God, but he is now "reckoning without his host". "And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor any grieving thorn of all that are round about them, that despised them; and they shall know that I am the Lord God." — 28:24.

The Zidonians and other Canaanites in Palestine were left there as a test to God's covenant people "to prove Israel by them, to know whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the Lord, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses". (Judg. 3:1-4) Likewise God has permitted his covenant people in these days to be in the midst of the enemy organization, yet not a part of it, and many

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who have made a covenant to do the will of God have failed to prove their love and devotion to Jehovah but have hearkened and yielded to the enemy because of selfish fear that they might lose some earthly favor. Big Business and its subsidized press has certainly "despised" God's faithful people and caused God's kingdom, which they represent, to be misrepresented and reproached. Like briers and thorns, the press has scratched, pricked and pierced the Lord's true people when it would have been much easier for the press to state the truth. These giants of the enemy have followed the same course as that of Satan and have resorted to lies.

But the arm of the Lord Jehovah is not shortened. He has organized his people and sent them forth as his witnesses. He has provided them with printing machines and factories for the publication of the message in the form of books and magazines and other papers, and he has employed the radio as another means of informing the people of the truth. Jehovah's witnesses are now formed into a service organization and go to the homes of the people and tell them the truth, and thus the Lord is getting the message to the people and that to his own honor. Jehovah's witnesses go forward regardless of the pricks and scratches that are inflicted upon them by the various instruments of Satan. The public press, owned or subsidized by Big Business, has refused to learn from the present proclamation of the truth that Jehovah is God; hence God declares his purpose to compel them to know his power and his justice and of his destructive acts.

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"THE HOLY LAND"

It has been thought that Jehovah is speaking concerning the Jews in Palestine when he says: "Thus saith the Lord God, When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the people among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the heathen, then shall they dwell in their land that I have given to my servant Jacob." (28: 25) This is not the correct conclusion. The Jews that are now gathered to Palestine are not there to the glory of God, because they are gathered in unbelief and they do not believe or serve God. The reference in this last-quoted scripture is to God's anointed remnant.

Jacob especially foreshadowed the remnant of the Lord. These God has taken out from the Gentile powers as a people for his name and has gathered them unto Zion, his own organization. This is now being done "in the [very] sight of the heathen"; because God's remnant are neither keeping out of sight nor keeping their mouths closed, but they are constantly proclaiming the name and the praise of the Most High. Jehovah is now sanctified in them in that he has called them into his active service and they extol his name and declare his mighty works. The faithful remnant do now 'dwell in their land given to Jacob', because they are God's "servant" class, and are now dwelling in the condition pictured by 'the land shadowed with wings' of Jehovah. (Isa. 18:1,2) The birthright has been taken from Esau and given to this "servant" class, and they are God's servants. They are therefore "in the holy land" or condition rather than in the literal land of Palestine, which is now under the control of the seventh world power. It is

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therefore certain that this verse applies to God's chosen people now upon the earth.

Further speaking of the security and prosperity of his favored "servant" class the Lord says: "And they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses, and plant vineyards; yea, they shall dwell with confidence, when I have executed judgments upon all those that despise them round about them; and they shall know that I am the Lord their God." (28:26) This is a figurative expression showing how God's remnant people are now safely placed in God's organization. There they dwell in the house of the Lord and abide in the true vine, Christ Jesus, and bring forth the fruit of the kingdom, and partake of the wine of joyful proclamation of the kingdom of God and of his Christ. When the Lord has thus brought his people into this favored position this is evidence that the fall of Satan's organization is near at hand.

Every part of Satan's organization despises God's remnant, even as Moab, Ammon, Edom, Philistia, Tyre and Zidon hated Israel. Since 1919 Jehovah's judgments are being declared against the despisers of his people and of his kingdom. God has gathered his anointed ones into their "home land", that is to say, into God's organization, in order that they might be secure while delivering the message of his kingdom and serving notice upon the enemy nations. This message of the Lord is being declared by men and women, and hence the mighty satanic organization refuses to believe it even though the Lord has declared: "Beware, therefore, lest that come upon you, which is spoken of in the prophets; Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for I work a work in your days,

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a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you." (Acts 13:40,41; Isa. 29:14; Hab. 1:5) Even after Armageddon some of the remnant may be used for the further fulfilment of this prophecy. Even now God's remnant people know that they dwell in security in his organization, and they know that his promised blessings to them are sure and true. This is a vindication of God's name now in the eyes of these faithful ones, and they know now that they are the servants of Jehovah, the true and only God. They will, by his grace, continue to make known the message of Jehovah and his kingdom regardless of the opposition by the Zidonians.

AGAINST EGYPT

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 29)

Jehovah's great opposer is Satan. For centuries he has pitted himself against Jehovah God and boasted of his ability to thwart God's purposes. Before destroying him Jehovah makes a show of Satan, that is to say, he exhibits to his people Satan and his organization from various viewpoints, and when the enemy goes down all will know that Jehovah is the Almighty God; and this is the chief reason for the giving of the testimony and for the battle of Armageddon. Just one year and two days after Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem, and Ezekiel's dumbness toward Jerusalem began, Jehovah directed his prophet to further speak against the enemy: "In the tenth year, in the tenth month, in the twelfth day of the month, the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man, set thy face against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and prophesy against him, and against all Egypt: speak,

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and say, Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself."  — 29:1-3.

This is a prophecy against the Devil and his organization. "Pharaoh," meaning "shepherd", refers to Satan who shepherds his own organization and for his own selfish purposes. The Hebrew word for Egypt is Mizraim, meaning "the encloser or embanker of the sea" and user of the same for traffic. (See Prophecy, page 139; The Watchtower, 1929, pages 206, 279.) Satan has banked up the "sea" or humanity and turned it into channels for the carrying on of his wicked and oppressive merchandise or commercial schemes. The third verse above quoted refers to Satan as "the great dragon". Both Leeser and Rotherham render the Hebrew word as "crocodile". Such is a great water monster with scales, and a mouth having strong jaws, and it also has feet. (32: 2) Pharaoh king of Egypt, which stands for or represents Satan the Devil, claims the river for his own. The river here claimed is the stream of human creatures. Satan concludes that because mankind is turned to sin now the human race belongs to him, and that God has no proper claim on the race. Although man enclosed the sea with dikes, and turned the waters of the Nile into certain channels, yet neither man nor Satan made the waters of the Nile, nor the rain nor the springs that feed the headwaters thereof. Satan did not create the human race, nor can he give life to any one thereof. He merely turned the stream of humanity aside from following toward God; and he concludes that because

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he turned them from God they are his. Satan has made the human race what it now is both mentally and morally, and he is the god of this wicked world. Jehovah now informs his covenant people of his purpose concerning Satan and directs them to make these facts known to all others in and about Jerusalem who will hear, and therefore he says by his prophet: "But I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales; and I will bring thee up out of the midst of thy rivers, and all the fish of thy rivers shall stick unto thy scales." — 29:4.

The "hooks" [Hebrew, chach] mentioned in the foregoing verse are the kind used on captives or to capture animals and by which those when caught are led or compelled to follow. "Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult, is come up into mine ears, therefore will I put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou earnest." (Isa. 37: 29; see also Ezek. 38:4) The same Hebrew word chach is also rendered "chains": "The nations also heard of him; he was taken in their pit, and they brought him with chains [chach] unto the land of Egypt. And they put him in ward in chains, and brought him to the king of Babylon; they brought him into holds, that his voice should no more be heard upon the mountains of Israel." (19:4,9) These hooks correspond with the "great chain" with which Christ Jesus binds the Devil. — Rev. 20:1-3.

"I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales," says the Lord. Members of the "beast" and "false prophet" system, that is to say, members

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of Satan's organization, are here the fish that stick to the Devil: "even Pharaoh, and all them that trust in him." (Jer. 46: 25) For selfish reasons these fish line up on Satan's side and in his organization and they trust in Satan's power. The giant Goliath, who is a picture of Satan, was covered with a coat of mail (Hebrew, scales) which corresponds to the scales of the old dragon, Satan. (1 Sam. 17: 5) Satan's coat of mail, or scales, will furnish no protection for him against the assault of Jehovah's mighty Executive Officer whom David foreshadowed when he smote Goliath. The Lord will bring Satan out of the rivers, in this, that he will destroy his control of the people and cause him to cease his operations amongst the people. (Rev. 20:2) "The fish of thy rivers," meaning the official members of his organization, will go to Satan; but the rest of the people who take their stand on the side of the Lord will no longer 'lie under the wicked one'. (1 John 5:19) Those who take their stand on the side of Jehovah will flow unto the mountain of the house of the Lord. — Isa. 2:2,3.

God declares his purpose to humiliate Satan to the very dust. "And I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers; thou shalt fall upon the open fields; thou shalt not be brought together, nor gathered: I have given thee for meat to the beasts of the field and to the fowls of the heaven." (29: 5) Satan and his organization must be and will be dragged out into the open and put to a violent death and made food for the carrions of the open field. The Devil has for a long time kept his identity a secret from most people and has used the so-called "Christian Scientists" to this end, and now

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he does not like God's faithful witnesses to point him out and expose him to others by telling the truth about him and his wicked, oppressive organization. He hates Jehovah's witnesses because these, by the grace of God, are now proclaiming the truth which exposes Satan and his agencies. They are participating in and delivering the testimony of truth of Christ Jesus, the Chief Witness, and for this reason that old Dragon in the modern waters is desperately attempting to destroy them. God will shield and protect all those who love him.

All shall know that Jehovah is God. "And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall know that I am the Lord, because they have been a staff of reed to the house of Israel." (29:6) The Big Business element of Satan's organization has assumed that it was indispensable to the unholy and so-called "organized Christianity". Those who have claimed to serve God and who have done so merely in name, and those who have been unfaithful to the Lord, have time and again applied to Big Business for aid. It was the commercial interests that financed the movement to unite the churches. The Interchurch World Movement announced its purpose to raise three hundred and thirty million dollars to carry forward its scheme, and Big Business furnished most of the money. Big Business is now using its powers and finance to erect skyscraper church buildings and cathedrals, and claims to do this in behalf of "Christianity" or for "organized Christian religion". In due time Jehovah God will convince even those of Big Business that he can accomplish his work without them, and then these oppressors of humanity will be forced to know that Jehovah is

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God. Big Business has been a staff and a reed to the professed house of Israel, and that staff and reed shall be broken.

Jehovah has never blessed any attempt of his people in adopting Big Business methods to acquire money for his witness work. In fact, every one who has attempted to resort to such methods upon the pretext of getting money to carry on the Lord's work has failed. "When they took hold of thee by thy hand, thou didst break, and rend all their shoulder: and when they leaned upon thee, thou brakest, and madest all their loins to be at a stand. Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and cut off man and beast out of thee." (29:7,8) Commercialism has been a bane to God's people. Whoever has become entangled therewith has received injury, and many have been 'drowned in the sea'. Jehovah God alone is the sure support of his people and his cause. It is not proper for any of God's people to lean upon any creature of Satan's organization. Big Business must be taught this lesson, as well as the professed people of God. Jehovah's witnesses have, by the grace of the Lord, learned the lesson. "Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and stay on horses, and trust in chariots, because they are many; and in horsemen, because they are very strong; but they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, neither seek the Lord! Yet he also is wise, and will bring evil, and will not call back his words: but will arise against the house of the evil doers, and against the help of them that work iniquity. Now the Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses flesh, and not spirit. When the Lord shall stretch out his hand

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[for judgment], both he [Egypt] that helpeth shall fall, and he [God's covenant people] that is holpen shall fall down, and they all shall fail together." — Isa. 31:1-3.

The faithful have learned to trust in the Lord, and not in man. (Ps. 118:8) We are now in the day which Jehovah has made, and in that day the Lord with his sore and strong sword shall slay the dragon that is in the sea. (Isa. 27:1) Satan and his organization must go down, because Jehovah has thus made his decree. "And the land of Egypt shall be desolate and waste; and they shall know that I am the Lord: because he hath said, The river is mine, and I have made it. Behold, therefore, I am against thee, and against thy rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from the tower of Syene even unto the border of Ethiopia." (29: 9,10) Otherwise stated, Satan and his organization shall be rent from end to end. This harmonizes with James 5:1-6.

By his prophet Jeremiah God declares that all nations of earth shall be made desolate, and this includes Egypt. (Jer. 25:15,26) It includes the king of Egypt and his servants. "No foot of man shall pass through it, nor foot of beast shall pass through it, neither shall it be inhabited forty years. And I will make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate, and her cities among the cities that are laid waste shall be desolate forty years: and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries." (29:11,12) Satan's organization, particularly the commercial part thereof here emphasized, shall be completely wiped out.

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Forty years was the length of the period of time of the reign of David, and also that of Solomon, both of which foreshadowed the reign of Christ Jesus. 'Forty years of the desolation of Egypt' above mentioned therefore seems to correspond with the reign of Christ, the antitypical David, over the period of a thousand years, during which antitypical Egypt must be in captivity to Christ Jesus. During that time must be fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 19:21, to wit: "And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation; yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord, and perform it." This will prove how impotent the Devil or any part of his organization is to carry through his purposes. It will prove how foolish it is for Satan or any creature to think he can pursue his own selfish and wicked course forever. The forty years also corresponds with the period of time Satan will be dead. He will never be permitted to again build his organization.

During the reign of Christ the people who have been under Satan and unwillingly held there will be permitted to reform. Those who are obedient to Christ will be brought to God and restored and reconciled to him. "Yet thus saith the Lord God, At the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the people whither they were scattered: and I will bring again the captivity of Egypt, and will cause them to return into the land of Pathros, into the land of their habitation; and they shall be there a base kingdom." (29:13,14) The loving-kindness of Jehovah is shown to the dupes of Satan by giving them an opportunity for restitution, and those who obey will become the

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people of God. "In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance." (Isa. 19:24,25) When Satan is brought out of the pit at the end of the thousand years he will never be restored to anything, but, like the Dragon, he will be completely destroyed. Obedient people under the reign of Christ will be returned to the land of their habitation, the garden-of-Eden condition, and, continuing obedient to God, they will live.

TRADING

Buying and selling is not in itself wrong, but it must be done in honesty. (Lev. 25:15,16) The law of God permitted his people to buy and sell. Barter and trade between the people of things that they have and which they can spare to their neighbors is entirely proper. The great wrong is caused, however, from exploiting the people and employing the mercantile schemes to pile up great amounts to be used for selfish, oppressive purposes. The kingdom of God will never permit commercialism in any such form as it is now practiced. Even legitimate trade will be the basest part of the kingdom of God: "It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations: for I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations." (29:15) What buying and selling will be done in the realm of God's kingdom will be merely subsidiary to the life of the people and used to the service of God.

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The consideration of men so far as trading is concerned will then be "What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?" That is, they will barter and trade only in things that are necessaries of life, and never for pecuniary profit. In such trading the people will measure to each other honestly and fairly. They will be merciful, even as God is merciful, and will give good measure, pressed down and shaken together. (Luke 6: 36-38) This rule now shows that the proper course of dealing for God's people is to be open, square and absolutely honest, and not resort in their trades to fraudulent schemes, such as the world uses. No true child of God could be excused for willingly cheating or defrauding anyone.

In the kingdom of God commercialism shall not be the confidence of the people. "And it shall be no more the confidence of the house of Israel, which bringeth their iniquity to remembrance, when they shall look after them [calling to mind iniquity, by their turning to follow them, Roth.]; but they shall know that I am the Lord God." (29:16) The remnant of God's people even today are fulfilling this scripture. They do not put confidence or reliance upon Big Business, but they clearly discern that commerce is one of the chief factors of Satan's wicked organization. The Lord is calling his people out of commercial pursuits and calling them to enter the service of publishing his great name and the message concerning his kingdom. This they are doing by building printing plants and supplying the people with the printed message of the truth and at the very lowest cost. The remnant of God's people on earth are now

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in a measure carrying out the divine rule announced by this scripture.

REWARDING THE INSTRUMENT

The miniature fulfilment of the prophecy hereby considered was delayed apparently for a time, but God did not forget the instrument he employed in its fulfilment. "And it came to pass in the seven and twentieth year, in the first month, in the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came unto me, saying." (29:17) This was sixteen years, two months, and eighteen days after the prophecy against Egypt was spoken, and fifteen years, six months and twenty-three days after the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, that the Lord spoke to his prophet and said: "Son of man, Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon caused his army to serve a great service against Tyrus: every head was made bald, and every shoulder was peeled: yet had he no wages, nor his army, for Tyrus, for the service that he had served against it." (29:18) Doubtless the soldiers of Nebuchadnezzar's army became baldheaded and sore of shoulder by reason of carrying heavy loads and being exposed to the elements during the time of their hard service when besieging Tyre. The army had served thirteen years in besieging Tyre but had failed to take it. God's prophecy, therefore, must have complete fulfilment later, which complete fulfilment is at the end of the world, this present day.

The heathen king Nebuchadnezzar did not worship Jehovah, and therefore was not justly entitled to any favor from God. Nebuchadnezzar was pursuing a selfish course in attacking Tyre, but this served God's purpose in a measure in the fulfilment of the prophecy

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against Tyre; hence it pleased God to not restrain Nebuchadnezzar, but to permit him to transfer, his military operations against Egypt and thus fulfil God's judgment against that nation in a measure: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he shall take her multitude, and take her spoil, and take her prey; and it shall be the wages for his army." (29:19) God would not have permitted Nebuchadnezzar to subjugate Egypt if he had not served Jehovah's purpose. God did not bless Nebuchadnezzar in a spiritual way, but permitted him to be paid in his own kind or value, and such that he would appreciate, for the efforts he had expended against Tyre. Therefore the Lord's prophet was directed to say: "I have given him the land of Egypt for his labour wherewith he served against it, because they wrought for me, saith the Lord God." — 29:20.

In his campaign against Egypt Nebuchadnezzar was further used as God's means of carrying out his purpose against Satan's organization. It is in this connection written in Ezekiel 30:10-12: "Thus saith the Lord God, I will also make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon. He and his people with him, the terrible of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the land: and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with the slain. And I will make the rivers dry, and sell the land into the hand of the wicked; and I will make the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hand of strangers: I the Lord have spoken it."

Nebuchadnezzar was not a type of Christ; but he did serve Jehovah's purposes, and for that reason he

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is called Jehovah's servant. (See Vindication, Book One, pages 282, 283.) The name "Nebuchadnezzar" means "Nebo (that is, the prophet) is the protector against misfortune". The name properly applies to Christ Jesus, who is the great Prophet of God and who is the protector of his people against their foes, especially when warring against Satan's organization, which Egypt represented. Nebuchadnezzar pictures the manner in which God will use Christ Jesus, the one "terrible" to Satan's organization, and will use him for the purpose of destroying that organization. Jehovah's 'elect servant' is a stranger to and unfriendly to Satan's organization. Jehovah gave Nebuchadnezzar Egypt as pay for his services; and so in a similar way he gives to Christ Jesus all the world for his possessions. "Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel." (Ps. 2: 8, 9) As Nebuchadnezzar went from Tyre to Egypt, even so Christ Jesus goes from one victory to another, and before his onward march all of Satan's organization must flee and fall.

JEHOVAH'S ANOINTED

The house of Israel represents God's covenant and anointed people. "In that day will I cause the horn of the house of Israel to bud forth, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them; and they shall know that I am the Lord." (29: 21) Jesus Christ is particularly "the horn of the house of Israel"; and Jehovah caused it to bud or shoot forth

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in the year 1914, when he placed his King upon his throne. "The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies." (Ps. 110:2) Since the arrival of God's Messenger at his temple the strength of the remnant has budded and continues to increase. "For the Lord hath chosen Zion: he hath desired it for his habitation. There will I make the horn of David to bud: I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed. His enemies will I clothe with shame; but upon himself shall his crown flourish." — Ps. 132:13,17,18.

The Prophet Ezekiel represented Jehovah's witnesses now on earth, and to Ezekiel Jehovah said: "I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them." This foreshadows how the Lord God is now using the mouth of his "servant" class to give testimony for him to all the nations round about, as well as to those who are begotten of the spirit of God; and thus these faithful ones speak to each other, "and [say] unto Zion, Thy God reigneth." "Open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it." (Ps. 81:10) "And I have put my words in thy mouth, and I have covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people." (Isa. 51:16) "And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a polished shaft: in his quiver hath he hid me." (Isa. 49: 2) "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the Lord, and shall water

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the valley of Shittim. Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land. But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation. For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed; for the Lord dwelleth in Zion." (Joel 3:18-21) The Lord's faithful people had to be brought to a better knowledge of Jehovah and of who be is and what his name signifies and what are his purposes, and so the Lord is fulfilling upon them the promise that "they shall know that I am the Lord".

WARNING

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 30)

As God commanded Ezekiel, so now he commands his remnant people: "The word of the Lord came again unto me, saying, Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord God, Howl ye, Woe worth the day! For the day is near, even the day of the Lord is near, a cloudy day; it shall be the time of the heathen." (30:1-3) The day of God's wrath is come upon all nations and upon all operations of Satan's organization, and the Devil himself knows that fact. (Rev. 12:12) It seems strange that there are now on the earth many spirit-begotten ones who claim to love God and yet who do not see or appreciate the fact that the day of God's wrath is quickly to be expressed against all the nations. Those who fail to see this are missing a great opportunity to proclaim the truth. It is a dark day on Satan's organization, and its being "a cloudy day" portends that Jehovah is

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present and is very near to the time of the execution of his vengeance upon Satan's organization and to the vindication of his name. "The burden of Egypt. Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt; and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it." (Isa. 19:1) It is the time for the visitation of God upon the nations, hence the time of their misfortune or punishment, the description of which is given by the prophet in Jeremiah 25:15-28.

AGAINST ETHIOPIA

Egypt and Ethiopia were neighbors and sometimes allied themselves with or served each other. Ethiopia is frequently mentioned in the Scriptures in connection with Egypt. Ethiopia was never a world power such as Egypt was, and hence pictures some ally of Satan's commercial element, just as Zidon was a subsidiary of Tyre. Ethiopia seems to fitly picture the "gun" element or "strong-arm squad" of Big Business that is employed by Big Business to carry out its contemptible and wicked purposes. When Big Business wants something accomplished, and cannot accomplish it otherwise, it employs what it calls 'strike breakers' or 'special police' which inflict all manner of cruel punishment upon those who will not do the bidding of Big Business. For instance, the coal mine operators, owned and controlled by the big commercial wing of Satan's organization, employ men with deadly weapons to oppress, harass and kill those who get in the way of the schemes of Big Business. This same commercial element also employs military force

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when their selfish schemes seem to require it, and they take advantage of what they call "law and order" to overrun and shoot down men and women who are defenseless. The seventh world power would not be pursuing her wicked and heartless course against the peoples of India right now were it not for the purpose of maintaining the commerce of that world power. The Ethiopians therefore seem well to represent the employees of the commercial wing of Satan's organization to inflict punishment upon others. "Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow." — Jer. 46: 9.

The prophet of the Lord tells of the "cloudy day" of God's wrath, and then says: "And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down." (30:4) Jehovah will not permit to go unnoticed, and hence unpunished, those men who have hired themselves to Big Business and cooperate with Big Business to oppress, harass and kill the defenseless.

As a means of identifying some of this class: Recently in the coal fields of Kentucky, operated by Big Business interests, a peaceful farmer committed the 'grievous offense' against Big Business of making a bail bond for a poor woman of the laboring class who had been arrested on some charge at the instance of the mine operators, and whom the mine operators were persecuting. Within a few minutes after he had signed the bond some agent of Big Business warned

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the farmer. For the offense of signing a bail bond this farmer had his barn and store building burned to the ground within twenty-four hours. This is just one minor incident, and there are many others committed throughout the realms of the seventh world power and at the instance of the commercial wing of Satan's organization.

Furthermore the Lord says of this "strong-armed bludgeon squad": "Ethiopia, and Libya [Put, R.V., Leeser], and Lydia [Lud, R.V., Leeser], and all the mingled people, and Chub [Cub, R.V., Leeser], and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword." (30: 5) Put (meaning "bow") was a brother of Cush and Mizraim. (Gen. 10:6) Lud (meaning "tortuous, full of writhings", like a snake) was a son of Mizraim. (Gen. 10:13) Chub (Cub) probably means Nubians, a black and ferocious people. "Mingled people" (arab) more particularly applies to those wild and ferocious people that hire themselves out to commit devilish deeds. All together this element pictures the helpers or hired tools of Big Business who by violent methods carry out the schemes of the commercial powers. Concerning the 'leagued men' (Leeser) the text, according to Rotherham, means "the sons of the land of the covenant". This latter translation of the text shows that it applies to the sons of the land of Israel who were in a covenant with God but who at the time of the fall of Jerusalem fled for refuge to Egypt. Against such the Lord said: "So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt, to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; and none of them shall remain or

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escape from the evil that I will bring upon them." (Jer. 42:17) In modern times there are those who, contrary to the Lord's instruction, violate their covenant with the Lord by seeking aid or refuge in the Devil's organization and who therefore will go down with the Devil's organization when the Lord Jesus Christ makes his assault upon it. One having been favored by the Lord and who then turns to any part of Satan's organization, whether out of fear or for any other reason, will be counted in as a part of Satan's organization and meet the same fate.

All allies of Big Business shall fall, according to the words of God's prophet. "Thus saith the Lord, They also that uphold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her power shall come down: from the tower of Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith the Lord God. And they shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate, and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are wasted. And they shall know that I am the Lord, when I have set a fire in Egypt, and when all her helpers shall be destroyed." (30:6-8) These necessarily include men of big politics, militarism, and the big League of Nations, the commercial and all other supporters and allies thereof. Big Business prides herself upon the fact that politicians and big preachers are under the control of the commercial power and do the bidding of that wing of Satan's organization, and that therefore their gold is sufficient to protect them and their allies. Their gold will not be able to deliver them or any of that crowd at Armageddon. (Zeph. 1:18) The great financial institution will be wrecked, and its "strong-arm squad" or "military bludgeon crowd" and its

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armies and navies will be destroyed; and since the seventh world power contains most of this, the seventh world power will come in for the worst part of the expression of God's indignation. This is but a corroboration of Ezekiel 29:8-10 (see comments there). Members of Satan's organization have been and are so hard-hearted and cruel, and so hard-headed in refusing to receive any knowledge of or concerning Jehovah God, that the Lord God will break up the devilish organization from end to end, that is to say, "from Migdol to Syene," as is stated in the margin of the text. This the Lord will do in order to drive it into their heads that Jehovah is supreme. His word and name must be vindicated.

HIS WITNESSES

Jehovah gives encouragement and comfort to his witnesses to press the battle to the gate. Such is one of the reasons for making known his purposes by the unfolding of these prophecies. (Rom. 15:4) "In that day shall messengers go forth from [before] me in ships, to make the careless Ethiopians afraid, and great pain shall come upon them, as in the day of Egypt; for, lo, it cometh." (30:9) The word "messengers" is from the Hebrew word malach, meaning ambassadors of the Lord God. These ambassadors go forth with the message of God's Word. 'Going forth from before the Lord' shows that these messengers must be the ones to whom God gives first an understanding of his prophecy "in that day" of God's vengeance and vindication and who are the first to discern the Devil's organization and to give testimony against it. The word "ships" in this text is from

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the Hebrew tsi, meaning "something set up, a fixture". These ships are not the ships of the enemy, but the Lord God's battle ships. They therefore seem to correspond to the Lord's war chariots. (Nah. 2:3) They well picture the world-wide organization of Jehovah God's people which by his grace and power has been "set up" for the purpose of giving testimony to the people of God, and to others of the nations, and which organization has been set up in various companies of the Lord's people for conveying the message to others according to God's commandment.

In these organizations and in an orderly manner God's remnant, who are his ambassadors, ride upon the seas, that is, upon the people, bringing the message of the kingdom of God and of the fact of the vindication of his name. As the Lord was with his servant Paul in the ship (Acts 27: 22-24), so the Lord is with his ambassadors or witnesses in their ships or organizations who are doing an organized and orderly service in the name of Jehovah. It is therefore certain that those who oppose these ambassadors who ate giving testimony are opposing Jehovah God. Those who claim to be in a covenant with God and who fail and refuse to perform the duties of an ambassador or witness of Jehovah show that they do not have on the wedding garment (Matt. 22:11,12) and that they are therefore not in the covenant for the kingdom.

According to Rotherham the latter part of this verse reads, "to cause dread unto Ethiopia so confident." The hireling strong-arm military squad of Big Business, who oppress the people, and who persecute and arrest and maltreat God's people, have

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been and are bold-faced against the Lord and rely upon Satan's organization for protection, but even these show in their faces some dread when laying hold upon God's witnesses. The testimony of the truth when stated to them frightens them. The navy and military forces of Big Business are in the same predicament of dread, and this is evidenced by the many naval and disarmament conferences that are now being held. The message of truth has stirred up some fear and dread amongst the chief ones of Big Business operations and they have considered this at their meetings, and especially the message that is contained in the Kingdom booklet. Fear has taken hold upon them because of what they may lose, but they do not fear God or give their allegiance to him. Their fear is for the loss of what they have. "Great pain [trembling, Leeser] shall come upon them." The Lord gives assurance to his messengers or witnesses that the burden of their message which he has given them shall not fail. For this reason the faithful company of Jehovah's witnesses are not at all disturbed by reason of the scoffers and opposers. These scoffers and opposers are afraid now, but they continue to scoff at the messengers of God. But these faithful witnesses go straight forward in the performance of their God-given duties and privileges. — 2 Pet. 3:3,4.

Jehovah announces his purpose to destroy Egypt by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. "Thus saith the Lord God, I will also make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon. He and his people with him, the terrible of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the land: and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the

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land with the slain. And I will make the rivers dry, and sell the land into the hand of the wicked; and I will make the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hand of strangers; I the Lord have spoken it." (30:10-12) Nebuchadnezzar here foreshadowed Christ Jesus, he that is the "terrible one" to Satan's organization. God will dry up the rivers which Satan has claimed for himself and "sell the land into the hand of the wicked". The word "wicked" here, according to the Revised Version and also Leeser, is rendered "evil men"; hence the word wicked in the Authorized Version does not mean morally wicked, but it does mean the power used to bring distress and affliction upon Satan's organization. God created evil, that is to say, that which he uses to bring affliction upon -his enemies. (Isa. 45:7) Thus the "evil men" here represent Christ and his army that bring afflictions and punishment upon Satan's organization. Christ and his armies are indeed strangers and unfriendly to Satan's commercial organization, not at all allied with it, and will destroy it and all other parts of Satan's organization.

IDOLS

The prophecy here resumes prediction against the commercial and military powers of Satan's organization. "Thus saith the Lord God, I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to cease out of Noph [Memphis]; and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt: and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt." (30:13) This means that commercialized religion will be abolished; also the god of war, together with sacrifices unto the god of war,

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will be destroyed. When the Lord has executed his judgments there will be no more any captains of the commercial wing of Satan's organization, such as billionaires, aristocrats, admirals, and such like that have ruled and oppressed the people and who have been regarded as and called 'princes'.

Continuing his denunciation against Egypt the prophet says: "And I will make Pathros desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, and will execute judgments in No." (30:14) Southern Egypt around Thebes is here described as Pathros, from which the Egyptians expanded northward down the course of the River Nile. Concerning Zoan and Noph it is written: "The princes of Zoan are become fools, the princes of Noph are deceived; they have also seduced Egypt; even they that are the stay [margin, governors] of the tribes thereof. The Lord hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof: and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof, as a drunken man staggereth in his vomit. Neither shall there be any work for Egypt, which the head or tail, branch or rush, may do." (Isa. 19:13-15) The men who have manipulated the commerce of the world have been unfaithful stewards of the material wealth of the earth and have done great violence to the interests of the people, causing them much distress and suffering; therefore the fiery judgment that awaits them. Zoan was the place where Moses confronted Pharaoh and where Jehovah demonstrated that he is God. — Ps. 78:12,43.

"And I will pour my fury upon Sin [margin, Pelusium], the strength [R.V., stronghold] of Egypt; and I will cut off the multitude of No. And I will set

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fire in Egypt; Sin shall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph shall have distresses daily." (30:15,16) Sin, in Egyptian meaning "sun", was a place of entrance into Egypt; hence it needed to be a stronghold. It is not strong enough, however, to resist the entering of Jehovah's Executive Officer when he proceeds to break up Satan's organization. No was the seat of worship of the god Amon (meaning "the hidden or unseen one"). Neither the Devil nor any of his associates can resist the attack of the great Warrior, Christ Jesus.

Satan's organization shall be assaulted "daily" (R.V., in the daytime), that is to say, when the light of the new day shines. The attack of the Lord Jesus against Satan's wicked organization will be open and aboveboard, and not secret. Now the Lord is having his witnesses serve notice upon the Devil's organization in advance of the open assault against it by Christ and his organization.

"The young men of Aven and of Pibeseth shall fall by the sword; and these cities shall go into captivity." (30:17) "Aven" means "vanity, wickedness", and "the young men of Aven" seems to refer to the strong ones of Big Business giving worship to the selfish and wicked things which are vain. Pibeseth (margin, Pubastum) was "the abode of the goddess Bast (the lion-headed or cat-headed or lioness-faced goddess) ". She represents Satan's wife or organization which brings forth the false seed of promised blessings. Cat-faced or lioness-faced women are often the ready instruments of Satan and exercise a subtle and wicked influence over those about them and demand and receive homage to which they are not entitled. Of

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course the Devil is back of all this unrighteous course. Big Business assumes to be the seed that will give to the people what they need, and, like their mother, the cat-faced, lioness-faced goddess, it is sly, cunning and wicked. Logically they would worship their mother, who is in covenant with the Devil; hence the Devil's organization is their goddess or object of worship. All of these wicked elements of Satan's organization shall be destroyed.

"At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity. Thus will I execute judgments in Egypt; and they shall know that I am the Lord." (30:18,19) Tehaphnehes, also called Daphne, means "laurel", and was sacred to the sun god. It was there that the people were guilty of assaulting God's chosen people the Israelites. (Jer. 2:16) After the fall of Jerusalem some of the Jews fled to this place of Tehaphnehes for refuge. (See Jeremiah 43:7.) Jeremiah himself was forced to go there against his will. This pictures that it is vain for any of God's people to flee to the citadel of commercialism or any other part of Satan's organization for refuge, because all of Satan's organization shall go down. Christ Jesus, the Executive Officer of Jehovah, whom Nebuchadnezzar pictured, shall destroy the enemy organization. "And I will kindle a fire in the houses of the gods of Egypt; and he shall burn them, and carry them away captives; and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd putteth on his garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace. He shall break also

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the images of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with fire." — Jer. 43:12,13.

ARM BROKEN

For his own purposes Jehovah keeps an accurate time schedule. "And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the first month, in the seventh day of the month, that the word of the Lord came unto me." (30: 20) This was five months and three days before the sack of Jerusalem and her temple. King Zedekiah had appealed to Egypt for help and Egypt had come to Jerusalem's aid, and the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar withdrew from the assault. (Jer. 37: 5,11) Jeremiah told the Jews that Pharaoh's army would return to Egypt and that the Chaldeans would come back to destroy Jerusalem. The Egyptian campaign failed and they were compelled to return to Egypt, and then the Chaldeans began the final assault upon the city of Jerusalem. This well illustrates how Satan by the use of his commercial and military force would save "Christendom" from the assault of Jehovah's Executive Officer, and foreshadows his certain defeat.

"Son of man, I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, lo, it shall not be bound up to be healed, to put a roller to bind it, to make it strong to hold the sword." (30:21) When Christ Jesus went forth to cast Satan out of heaven Satan would know that the earthly part of his organization, and particularly "Christendom", would be and was in immediate danger. He therefore plunged the nations of "Christendom" into the World War, using Big

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Business, the military and political forces to more fully solidify the three elements of his earthly organization and to strengthen his invisible and visible power of control over the people. The clergy of "Christendom" quickly acted with the other branches of Satan's organization to get into the war. By hurling Satan out of heaven the Lord, in the language of this text, 'broke his arm.' His heavenly power was completely destroyed. Satan must now confine his operations to the earth, pictured by Egypt, which place he had been forced to occupy; and now he is gathering all of his forces to make his last desperate stand at Armageddon. Christ continues to send his witnesses forth into "Christendom" and to all parts of Satan's organization, to serve notice and warning.

In due time "Christendom", together with all other parts of Satan's organization, will fall at the hands of Christ; which will mean the complete destruction of Satan's power. Satan has attempted to heal his broken arm or broken power by applying the "roller" or long bandage thereto in the form of the League of Nations compact (or splint) into which League he has brought the spiritual (or religious), commercial and political elements of his organization in an attempt to prevent another fracture. His heavenly power cannot be healed, and his earthly power is in no wise strengthened. He desperately pushes his commercial agencies forward in the formation of gigantic financial or commercial mergers, and attempts to have the religious and political elements of his organization to support the commercial factor. His political forces of the governments of the earth, and particularly those in the League, aided by the clergy or

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religious elements, which are constantly cooperating with Big Business forces, are acting against the interests of the people in general in trying to prepare for the assault at Armageddon. These three elements, commerce, politics and religion, try to bind up or heal the injury already inflicted upon the organization and to make it strong, so that it can hold the power of the sword. The desperate efforts of Satan's agents fail to better conditions, and the cries of the oppressed people continue to increase.

Jehovah God hears the cries of the oppressed and takes note of the desperate and wicked acts of Satan to strengthen his organization, and his prophet speaks: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and will break his arms, the strong, and that which was [already] broken; and I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand." (30:22) God gives full assurance now to those that love him that both of Satan's arms will be broken; that is to say, his entire power shall fail and his sword shall be knocked out of his hand, and his entire fighting equipment, together with his organization, shall be destroyed.

There are millions of people on earth who are properly called "hangers-on" to Satan's organization and who therefore support that organization. These have the "mark of the beast" in their foreheads and in their hands (Rev. 13:16,17), and hence they are Egyptians. To be sure, most of them are deceived; but regardless of all the oppression and suffering of the people, and regardless of all testimony that is being given by Jehovah's witnesses as to the cause thereof and the remedy God has provided, only a few

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hear and give heed to such testimony. Even those of good will who do hear and heed fail to take their stand wholly on the Lord's side. Armageddon will be required to cause the people to know that Jehovah is God and that his kingdom is their only hope. Therefore says the Lord: "And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries." (30:23) The complete downfall of Satan's organization at Armageddon and the scattering of the people throughout the nations will awaken them to the real solution of the world's troubles.

The great issue of supremacy must now be settled once and for ever. "And I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and put my sword in his hand: but I will break Pharaoh's arms, and he shall groan before him with the groanings of a deadly wounded man. But I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and the arms of Pharaoh shall fall down; and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall put my sword into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall stretch it out upon the land of Egypt. And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and disperse them among the countries; and they shall know that I am the Lord." — 30: 24-26.

"The king of Babylon" here mentioned pictures Christ Jesus, the great Executive of Jehovah God who will wield the sword of his divinely-given power to dash to pieces Pharaoh, that is, Satan and his organization. Jehovah's witnesses now on earth constitute a part of The Christ because they are members of his body. Jehovah God has put all power and authority in the hands of Christ Jesus and sent him forth to execute his judgment. (Ps. 110: 2) This same

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psalm states that God's faithful ones are willing in the day of the Lord; which means that they participate in the assault upon Satan's organization. The clear implication is that Jehovah will now strengthen his faithful witnesses to do their part in the great vindication work that is proceeding. Now these can truly say, as is written: "Blessed be the Lord my strength, which teacheth my hands to war, and my fingers to fight." — Ps. 144:1.

Those who know God and faithfully obey his commandments "shall be strong, and do exploits". (Dan. 11: 32) "For the arms of the wicked shall be broken: but the Lord upholdeth the righteous." (Ps. 37:17) That which is of paramount importance now is the vindication of Jehovah's name. Both the friends and the enemies of God will have it proven to them beyond all doubt that Jehovah is supreme. "They shall know that I am the Lord." Jehovah's witnesses now know this great truth and they are telling it to others. When Armageddon is done all will know that Jehovah is God. That trouble will kill many and will scatter those who survive. "Then shall ye return, and discern between the righteous and the wicked; between him that serveth God, and him that serveth him not."  — Mal. 3:18.

SATAN AND HIS TREES

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 31)

Ezekiel was still dumb as against Jerusalem, but he spoke under God's direction to the king of Egypt and his supporters. This seems clearly to teach that after the message of God is made clear and positive

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against "Christianity", so called, the witnesses whom Ezekiel foreshadowed will continue to speak to Satan and other parts of his organization. According to God's expressed will it was first necessary that the religious element be exposed; but now the attack must be made, and is being made, upon all branches of Satan's organization. The thirty-first chapter continues to expose Satan and his organization to view and to predict its fall: "And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the Lord came unto me, saying." — 31:1.

This was two months and six days before the firing of the temple that the prophecy here considered was uttered. Jeremiah prophesied at the direction of the Lord: "For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by my name, and should ye [the enemy nations, the other part of Satan's organization] be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished: for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, saith the Lord of hosts." (Jer. 25:29) That prophecy must have been some consolation to those of Jerusalem who heard it, to know that God will also deal with the enemies of God's chosen people. Even so now, those who hear the testimony given to them by Jehovah's witnesses must find some consolation in the fact that, while God will punish those who have taken his name in vain, he will also punish all his enemies that have defamed his name and have persecuted his chosen people.

God directed his prophet Ezekiel to speak unto the king of Egypt and unto his multitude. "Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multi-

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tude; Whom art thou like in thy greatness? Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs." (31: 2, 3) Satan and his organization are inseparable. The "king of Egypt" here refers specifically to Satan, whereas "his multitude" refers to all of those who are members of his organization and hence his supporters.

The third verse says: "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar." The word "was" is an interpolation. According to Rotherham, marginal reading, the text is: "Lo! a sherbin cedar in Lebanon." The text is therefore not comparing Pharaoh to the "Assyrian", but to a tree. (Isa. 41:19) Cedars of Lebanon are first mentioned in Judges 9: 15. They are used as a symbol of Satan and the official members of his organization because of the pride, hauteur, prominence, strength, ambition and exaltation of such as lift themselves up high. "For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted up, and he shall be brought low; and upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up. And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low; and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day." (Isa. 2:12-14,16, 27) The application is to Satan and his creatures or representatives, both invisible and visible to man, and therefore it applies to his entire organization.

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"Lebanon" means "white" or "snowy". As Satan's mountain or organization calls itself white and righteous, so is this the particular claim of the seventh world power on the borders of the land called "Christendom". By its own laws, enacted by the representatives of Satan, his organization legislates righteousness unto itself. This is particularly made manifest in the Prohibition laws of the United States and some other parts of "Christendom", and in the claim made by the British Empire that it is God's kingdom on earth.

The seventh world power has produced the most extensive and powerful commercial machine that has ever existed. When the prophet speaks of this tree in Lebanon "with fair branches" and its "shadowing shroud", or "forest-like shade", it is easy to see how it pictures Satan and his organization. Satan, by and through his organization, and particularly the commercial element thereof, has spread his branches out and taken in a vast territory. His boughs or branches are well represented by his great banking institutions, with their many branches; the navy and military, with its various branches; the marine organization; the bases for the operation of naval and military powers; and its great political organizations. All these organizations cast shadows that hide that which properly belongs to the people, as the boughs of a great tree hide the things that are under it. The commercial part of Satan's organization is the most prominent and therefore the most powerful part of the organization. The enemy and his organization rises up into the clouds because of its self-exaltation and extensive power. Satan and his enormous and far-

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reaching organization is described by the prophet in these words: "The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent out her little rivers unto all the trees of the field. Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long, because of the multitude of waters, when he shot forth." — 31:4, 5.

The peoples of earth, alienated from God and pictured here as the waters and coming under the influence and control of Satan, have made Satan and his organization great. Satan began his commercial operations in Eden, and as the peoples of earth have increased he has extended his mercantile operations. It has reached a climax in the end of the world. He created Big Business and has manipulated it for his own selfish purposes. By means of special class legislation enacted by purchased politicians he has fixed the laws to suit Big Business, and the common people have been compelled to depend upon Big Business. Satan has therefore made his visible organization very great by his exploitation of the people. He has caused Big Business to tower above all other things of the world. The waters of the seas and the rivers have furnished trade channels for Big Business to carry on its operations. The waters (symbolic of the peoples) have furnished opportunities for Satan to build his powerful commercial organization, and this he has done, and has used big religion and big politics to aid his commercial power to grow great and wax fat.

Birds and fowls hang on to the branches of trees, nest and roost there, and beasts of the field find shelter

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under the boughs of the trees. In symbolic language the Lord speaks of Satan and his organization and says: "All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all great nations." (31:6) Those hangers-on among the people of the world are such as desire to have an attractive place, one of ease, where they can roost and feather their own nest. These have put themselves under Satan, and particularly under the control of the commercial wing of his organization. The "sky-pilots", who according to their own estimate fly above the things of the earth, light in the branches of Satan's big tree and are borne up by the commercial part thereof, and there they roost and bring forth their young, and befoul those who come to rest under the trees. The beastly politicians and military officers make their roosting places and their beds under the boughs of Satan's commercial branches and there bring forth their children, that is to say, their wicked schemes. Thus the Lord in symbolic phrase shows Satan and his mighty organization, particularly the commercial part thereof, bringing all the power of the great nations under Satan's control. Only those who put themselves wholly on the side of the Lord God are freed from such wicked influence. These latter ones, being God's chosen people, neither hang on to Satan's organization nor seek rest or shade or shelter thereunder.

Then the Lord speaks of the greatness of Satan and his organization and says: "Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: for his root was by great waters. The cedars in the garden of

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God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chesnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty," (31:7,8) God's anointed people, who are made a part of his capital organization, are called "trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord". (Isa. 61:3) The chief one amongst those trees is Christ Jesus. In contrast with God's organization it is noted that when God made the earth and created man upon it, and assigned the things of the earth to Lucifer's domains, the things pertaining to the earth, including man, constituted a part of the organization over which Lucifer was made chief. As a living creature symbolized by a tree, Satan is fair in his domain, and he was great compared to other creatures in that domain. There was no other tree, that is, a living creature in his organization, that was like him for beauty and strength.

When Lucifer rebelled, and became Satan, the opposer of God, he turned all his power and his organization to wickedness. The most potent part of his visible organization consists of the commercial wing thereof, because by it Satan has erected a power that dominates and controls all the other portions of his earthly organization. Since trees symbolically represent Satan and other creatures of his organization, they also symbolically picture the organization in its entirety. As Lucifer towered above other trees in the garden of God, so now Satan towers above all other parts of his organization, and Big Business, or commerce, is the greatest part of his organization in its size and power and towers above the other branches of Satan's earthly organization. The political trees and the

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clergy trees and the military trees of Satan's company cannot control the commerce, or Big Business, but, on the contrary, Big Business dictates the policy of the others, and Satan, to be sure, is the chief one in the entire organization. The seventh world power has become Satan's greatest; and that which dominates the seventh world power is its commerce by sea and by land, and all other trees must come under or be subservient to Satan and the commercial wing of his organization.

The earth belongs to the Lord Jesus Christ, and the fullness thereof is his, because Jehovah has given into his hands all things; and since Christ Jesus has taken his power it is a "holy place" unto Jehovah. Now Satan and his organization illegally occupy the earth and the things thereof, and thus 'the abomination of desolation stands in the holy place'. This is particularly represented by his combined power united in the League of Nations. Let those who discern Satan's wicked organization, composed of religious, commercial and political divisions, and who long to see the earth made a fit place for man to dwell in, put themselves now wholly on the side of Jehovah God. (Matt. 24:15,16) Jehovah by his prophet then speaks further concerning the Devil and his organization: "I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches; so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him." — 31:9.

Pharaoh the king of Egypt pictured Lucifer, who is now the Devil. God made Lucifer fair and beautiful and by the multitude of his commercial branches the Devil has made his appearance in the eyes of men to be beautiful. Satan has directed his organization, and

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particularly making the commercial part thereof fat and bulging and powerful and therefore the envy of every other tree or every other part of his visible organization. This he has done by reason of using the God-made natural resources of the earth to carry out his own selfish and wicked purposes. Satan has caused his selfish agents, particularly within the realm of the seventh world power, to seize the natural resources of the earth and use them to exploit and oppress mankind in general. As Satan is great, likewise is his instrument Big Business a great or big tree, that is to say, a moving, going thing, and is envied by all other branches of Satan's organization. This envy induces men of similar calibre to try to imitate the giants of Big Business and has led many to create and operate "get rich quick" schemes. Big Business advertises itself in all the big newspapers and by radio and on the billboards, so that the people will be impressed by its importance. The politicians bow to it as their dictator, and the preachers and story writers frame it up as being the highest attainment of man, and therefore, according to them, the commercial power of the world is and must have divine approval.

Satan has thus lifted up himself and his commercial Big Business power over all the other creatures of his organization, and in these latter days he has especially magnified commerce, or Big Business, by seizing and controlling all the inventions, the waterways, the means of transportation by land, and machinery of every kind. The divine rule never changes; and Satan's exalted power must now be made low, because it is written: "Whosoever shall exalt himself, shall be abased." (Matt. 23:12; Dan. 5:18-21) Jehovah

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then announces his judgment against this wicked and oppressive one and his wicked and oppressive organization: "Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height, and he hath shot up his top among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height; I have, therefore, delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen, he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness." (31:10,11) The wickedness of Satan's organization must come to an end.

UPROOTED

Jehovah God has planted his royal family with Christ Jesus the Head and Chief One thereof. This constitutes the capital of Jehovah's organization, and is likened unto the mighty and new cedar tree. Before the onward march of this mighty One, who is earth's rightful Ruler, Satan and all his trees must fall. To Satan and his trees Christ is "terrible". (Joel 2:11) Christ Jesus, the fresh, new and green cedar tree, and full of life, is placed in full possession of all things of the earth: "Thus saith the Lord God, I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set it; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent. And all the trees of the field shall know that I the Lord have brought down the high tree, have exalted the low tree, have dried up the green tree, and have made the dry tree to flourish: I the Lord have spoken, and have done it." (17:22,24; see Vindication, Book One, pages 232, 233) In harmony with this statement God's prophet here again says concerning Satan and his wicked or-

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ganization that it shall be taken by Christ the terrible One and shall be broken. "And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him; upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him." (31:12) All the natural resources of the earth which Satan has misused shall be taken away from him and given to earth's rightful Ruler and then all shall know that Jehovah is God.

In this thirty-first chapter of Ezekiel's prophecy the commercial part of Satan's organization is given special prominence, but it must also be kept in mind that the picture applies both to Satan and to his organization. The destruction of Big Business corresponds with the picture concerning the Dragon's being hauled out of the rivers and scattered over the fields. (29: 4, 5; 32: 3-6) "Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field shall be upon his branches: to the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves for their height, neither shoot up their top among the thick boughs, neither their trees stand up in their height, all that drink water: for they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit." (31:13,14) All the beasts of the field, that is to say, every class of men forming Satan's organization, will be witnesses to the fall of the commercial powers; and this is likened unto the great monarch of the forests falling down and attracting the attention of all about. The Lord will thus teach all worshipers

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and servers of predatory wealth to suffer a lasting lesson.

The prophetic lesson is here given in advance for the benefit of those who have agreed to do the will of God, and affords them an opportunity to prove their love for God rather than for riches and ease. Those who by preference turn to things commercial or to industrial work and neglect the Lord's service, to which they have been once assigned, may expect to lose what they have once gained. Some may be compelled, because of obligation to children, for instance, to still labor with their hands for pecuniary profit, but all those who can do so, and who love the Lord and appreciate their privilege of service, will now delight to bear testimony to the name of Jehovah God.

The people of the seventh world power in particular, and which are pictured by the waters, have prided themselves in and boasted of the gigantic trees, to wit, the great commercial giants, Big Business, and its chief men, which they, the people, have irrigated, nourished, supported and borne up. They have put their trust in Satan and in his creation, and not in the Lord God, and therefore the Lord God will see to it that they have cause to mourn. "Thus saith the Lord God, In the day when he went down to the grave I caused a mourning. I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed; and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him."  — 31:15.

Many have long ago concluded that the prosperity of the people in general depends upon Big Business, but even now there is widespread business depression

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and many complain and mourn. With the complete fall of the commercial power of the world there will be much mourning amongst the small as well as the great dealers pictured by the many trees of the forests that faint and mourn. That this prophecy refers specifically to Big Business is proven by the fact that it mentions Mount Lebanon, the site of the primeval forests which God caused to take root and grow, and which was turned into wickedness and oppression. "So caused I gloom over him unto Lebanon, and all the trees of the field for him were covered with a shroud." (31:15, Roth.) Many of the clergy have forsaken the Lord to engage in a commercial business, which commerce has become the welcome ally of "organized Christianity" and is the mainstay of big politics. This shows that all these trees (living creatures that envy the big tree of the forest, to wit, Big Business) have for selfish reasons tried to imitate the big tree and profit thereby and will mourn when their great idol falls.

It is a common saying that when the commercial power goes down the governments will go with it. This must be true now because Big Business controls the governments of the nations. "I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth." (31:16) If the commercial element of the British-American empire falls, therefore, the seventh world power falls, and all other nations in the League will be able to do nothing. They cannot cope with the world situation. Even when Russia went

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to the pot the other nations were frightened; but when God uproots the commercial elements of Satan's visible organization, particularly made manifest in the seventh world power, everything else in the way of politics and militarism will go with it. According to Rotherham the text reads: "At the sound of his fall I made nations tremble, when I caused him to descend into hades with them who descend into the pit; then were grieved, in the earth below, all the trees of Eden, the choicest and best of Lebanon, all who had drunk the waters." The words Lebanon and Eden are here used to refer to the same thing, which shows that the text has reference particularly to the commercial organization of the world; and when this commercial power goes down all that have drunk at her waters shall go to the grave with it. That every branch of Satan's organization must go down is further supported by the words of the prophet: "Even they with him descended into hades among them who were thrust through with the sword, even his seed who dwelt in his shade in the midst of the nations." (31:17, Roth.) Thus the systems or organizations perverted by Satan and that have leaned upon him or associated with or depended upon the chief tree, Big Business, must find their final resting place in hell or oblivion. Everything cooperating with or giving support to Satan's big business commercial power will fall before the forward march of Christ Jesus, the terrible One to Satan.

Both Satan and his organization are pictured in this prophecy: "To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto

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the nether parts of the earth: thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh, and all his multitude, saith the Lord God." (31:18) Some authorities claim that the Egyptians practiced circumcision as the Hebrews did. Probably they learned it from the Hebrews, and that to accomplish some selfish beneficial results to themselves thereby. "Organized Christianity," particularly the clergy, which stands in a position similar to that of the Jews, has tried to circumcise Big Business and make it appear as a clean thing. For this reason the clergy have made the men of Big Business the "chief ones in their flocks". The man who financed the Interchurch World Movement was the world's then richest man and the big boss of Big Business. "Organized Christianity" yields to the wishes of Big Business. The clergy and others who claim to serve God refuse to say anything that might reflect upon the 'purity' of Big Business, and which might induce the people to believe that it is unclean. Big Business and its operators are not circumcised of heart. (Rom. 2:29; Jer. 4: 4) These are unclean, and the Lord declares that they shall die the death of the unclean. The Lord God will clean the earth of everything that defiles, and his kingdom will make the earth a fit place in which obedient men may live in happiness for ever.

END OF OPPRESSION

(EZEKIEL, CHAPTER 32)

Jehovah's promise to his "faithful servant" class is that he will show to them things that must speedily come to pass as well as the fulfilment of prophecy al-

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ready taken place. (Isa. 42: 9) This promise is sure, and when we see events coming to pass that exactly fit the prophecy we may be able to tell somewhat of the things that are speedily to follow; thus the Lord permits his faithful people to look into the immediate future. He has revealed to these the hideousness of Satan's organization and given his people assurance that soon it shall be destroyed. (Ps. 74:14) Big Business is the chief element or power by which Satan has oppressed and is now oppressing the people. The facts well known, and the light which the Scriptures throw upon these, strongly intimate that the complete downfall of Big Business and other parts of the oppressive system, together with Satan himself, is in the very near future. The thirty-second chapter of Ezekiel begins with the prophecy uttered one year, six months and twenty-three days after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of its temple. This suggests that Satan's controlling and oppressing power comes to a disastrous end after "organized Christianity" meets its fate. Jehovah God first exposes and makes known to his people the hypocritical religious element that has deceived the world, and then discloses and points out the fate of the powerful commercial wing of Satan's organization that has dominated and oppressed the people.

TYRE AND EGYPT

The ancient city of Tyre was a mercantile-marine power. She carried on her commerce by her ships that plied the seas and other waterways. She traded with all the nations of the then known world. Ancient Egypt was a world power, builded a great political

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machine, and controlled the commerce that was carried on by land. Ancient Tyre maintained a navy to protect her ships and commerce. Ancient Egypt maintained a powerful military organization by land to protect her commerce and to prosecute her commercial schemes. Both Tyre and Egypt practiced the Devil religion and were under the control of Satan. The peoples of both Tyre and Egypt were alienated from God by Satan, and the peoples thereof bore up, sustained and supported the ruling organization, which was a beastly thing. Both Tyre and Egypt represented the Devil in his world-wide visible organization. Satan's commercial organization by sea and by land finds its chief expression in the seventh world power, to wit, Britain-America alliance. Therefore modern Tyre and modern Egypt consist of the commercial power, both by sea and by land, that dominates the nations of the earth, and which is the chief part of Satan's visible organization.

The commercial power of modem times, both on the sea and on the land, constitutes what is termed Big Business. Jehovah uses ancient Tyre to picture the commerce or Big Business that exploits the people and controls the trade of the peoples by sea or other waterways. He uses Egypt to picture the commerce or Big Business that exploits the people and controls the trade of the world by land. By sea and land Big Business controls the world. This dominating, ruling factor is the offspring or seed of Satan. The king of Tyre therefore represents Satan himself, and Pharaoh of Egypt also represents Satan himself. The princes and supporters in this prophecy picture the chief ones in Satan's visible organization. Tyre represents the com-

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mercial factor of Satan's organization that dominates the sea. Egypt represents Satan's commercial organization that dominates the land. Satan's organization commercial, from the viewpoint of the sea and land, constitutes Big Business that controls the world.

The seventh world power, as the indisputable facts show, dominates the seas. The greatest shipping interests on earth belong to the seventh world power, and her navy is the most powerful of all. Whatsoever reason may be assigned for maintaining the great navies of the Britannic-American empire, or the navy of any other nation, for that matter, the real reason is to protect and support commerce, or Big Business. The people are burdened with excessive taxes to maintain these mighty navies, which in turn are used to exploit the people and to keep them in subjection and under the control of the ruling factors, particularly Big Business. Big Business owns and controls the merchant marine, the cable lines, the wireless that operates from ship to shore and shore to ship, and all other means of communication between the nations. Big politicians, who ride the ships of the sea, are the tools of Big Business and make convenient laws for and do the bidding of the owners of the ships. The clergy support the Big Business of the sea, and there is such a complete understanding between them and the owners of the ships that only orthodox clergymen of "organized Christianity" are permitted to hold religious services or deliver Biblical lectures aboard these ships. No shipping crew dares permit any aside from an authorized "organized Christianity" clergyman to publicly address the people aboard the ships. While the seventh world power is the greatest of all,

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it has accredited and brought into its folds the other leading nations under the compact of the League of Nations.

Commerce, or Big Business, dominates everything on the land. It is in the saddle, and dictates the terms to the people. Big Business owns practically all the banks and the money in them. It receives on deposit what little cash the common people have, and then uses that cash for its own selfish purposes. Big Business owns and controls the newspapers, the magazines, and other means of advertising itself to promote and carry on its propaganda schemes for exploiting the people and creating public opinion. Big Business owns and controls the armies and all of their equipment, including the air fleets. Big Business owns and controls the legislative and executive branches of the governments. It manipulates, elects and selects its own men to public office. It owns and controls the big lawyers, the judges, the courts, and the officers and servants that serve thereat. It owns and controls the big scientists, the engineers, the planners, architects and constructors of public works. Big Business owns and controls the majority of the colleges and the universities, and even the public or common schools. It owns the radio and controls the music that goes on the air, and the musicians that play. Big Business owns and controls "organized Christianity", and in particular the clergy that serve the same, and also other religions that Satan operates amongst the people and causes them to practice. Big Business owns and controls the natural supply of raw material out of which the clothing for the people is made and the fuel and facilities by which the people are furnished

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heat and light. Big Business owns and controls the patent rights for all the important machinery used for commerce or trade and also which the people have occasion to use. Big Business owns the people and tells them what they may drink, what they may wear, where they may educate their children, and what they may study, and what they must hear and believe. All of this is Satan's organization, visible to human eyes.

It must be concluded that Satan knew about what time God would send his beloved Son forth to rule the world, because Satan can read the Scriptures. Therefore, as the time drew nigh Satan would use all power at his disposal to quicken the minds of his astute dupes to bring forth labor-saving machines and devices by which commerce has grown to such gigantic proportions and controls the labor as well as the material that is in the world. Satan's purpose would be to concentrate all wealth and visible power in the hands of a few in order that he might keep the people under control and compel them to bear up and support his visible organization. His chief objective at all times has been to turn the people away from God and to have them support him and his organization. By Big Business he has controlled the religions and the preachers, and by these has induced the people to believe the slanders against God and the reproaches put upon His name. Satan has consolidated the religions, the commerce and the politics of the world, and has made this unholy combine a mighty and powerful machine for wickedness. These three elements, working today under the direction and master-mind of Satan, have heaped up great treasures by exploiting and robbing the people. Instead of labor's being

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able to war against capital, Big Business owns both capital and labor and has made the common people mere serfs, and yet the masses of the people bear up and support the satanic organization.

The small number of people on earth who are faithful and true to Jehovah God are, in the eyes of most people, so completely overshadowed by Satan's great organization that they appear as nothing. Even many who have once made a covenant to do the will of God are now so overawed by Satan and his powerful organization that they refuse to say anything about it. In the eyes of Satan's chief agents on earth Jehovah's faithful witnesses amount to nothing but pestiferous things to annoy Satan's princes in the world. When the little company of God's faithful ones fell under the persecuting hand of "Christendom" during the World War all portions of Satan's organization rejoiced and felicitated one another. Jehovah does not permit such to go unnoticed. Jehovah, foreknowing this, directed Ezekiel to take up a lamentation against Pharaoh king of Egypt, meaning Satan and his organization, and now he directs the Ezekiel class on earth to proclaim this lamentation against the Devil and his organization. Hence he directed Ezekiel to write: "Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him, Thou art like a young lion of the nations, and thou art as a whale in the seas; and thou earnest forth with thy rivers, and troubledst the waters with thy feet, and fouledst their rivers." — 32:2.

This prophecy, according to Rotherham, speaks of Pharaoh the king of Egypt as "the young lion of the nations thou didst deem thyself". According to

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Leeser: "Thou didst deem thyself like a young lion among the nations." In other words, Big Business, under the direction of its father Satan, deemed itself the proper ruler and dictator of the peoples of the nations of the earth. Such has been literally true for years and is true even at this day. Big Business, like its father Satan, has tried to hide itself behind the screens while carrying on its nefarious work. It has always likened itself, however, to the young lion, that is to say, the king of the beasts that dominates and rules. For instance, recently in the city of New York announcement was made by the political department that it was the purpose of the city to market a large amount of bonds to finance public works and other grafts. The big bankers of the city offered to float this bond issue provided the government of the city was fully given over into their hands. This was rather open and bold, but it is in keeping with what Big Business has been doing indirectly in that city for years. The same is true of the nations, particularly of the seventh world power. Space would not permit a review of the many wicked things that have been done by the dominating power of the world. Only a few are here mentioned as examples. Here are some historical facts that may interest the present generation now suffering under the oppressive hand of Satan and his chief instrument Big Business.

NATIONAL BANKING ACT

The National Banking Law of the United States was forced through the Congress of the United States and enacted by Big Business agents. The money lords of the seventh world power, to wit, England and

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America, dictated the conditions under which they would finance the Union, because much financing became necessary during the American Civil War, known as the War of the Rebellion. It is practically certain that that war between the North and the South was fomented by the money interests of Britain, the purpose being to divide the states, that the "old mother country" might profit thereby. John Sherman of Ohio was then a member of the United States Congress. In 1855 Mr. Sherman was admitted as a member of Congress.

"In Congress, Mr. Sherman quickly demonstrated his exceptional power as a master of finance. . . . Mr. Sherman was elected [to the Senate] and took his seat 4 March 1861. . . . From 1860 to 1900, there was scarcely a great financial measure with which the name of John Sherman was not connected. Among these were the making of United States treasury notes legal tender, the enacting of the national banking bill, the refunding act of 1870, and the resumption of specie payments. The detailed record of measures by which the legal tender notes of the government reached par, and by which specie resumption became an accomplished fact at the time fixed for it, exhibits the man under whose leadership this was done as a financier of the highest order." — The Americana, Volume 24, page 704.

The National Banking Act of the United States provided for the establishment of national banks in the following manner: In a city of more than six thousand population such a bank could be started with a capital of one million dollars. Government

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bonds were then selling for fifty cents on the dollar, and with five hundred thousand dollars in cash one million dollars of the United States government bonds could be bought. These bonds must be deposited with the government at Washington as security for currency furnished by the government to the bank organized. These bonds deposited with the government belonged, of course, to the bank, and the government paid the bank an annual interest of six percent in gold coin on one million dollars of bonds, which had cost the bank only half a million, and which was therefore equivalent to twelve percent interest on the amount invested by the private interests. In consideration of this deposit of bonds the government then issued currency to the bank up to ninety percent of the par value of the bonds, or nine hundred thousand dollars, which currency must be signed by the president of the bank before it was used and was therefore in fact the money issued by the bank. This was a subterfuge to get around the Constitutional provision for issuing money. This nine hundred thousand dollars so issued in currency, the bank could loan at ten percent interest for thirty or sixty days, the interest payable in advance, of course, which amounted to twelve percent on the nine hundred thousand dollars. The bank, of course, received deposits from the people and was permitted to loan such deposited money for its own private use. The national bank, therefore, was really a gold mine. Rothschild Brothers were then the great money kings of Britain. Those money changers conspired with their allies in the United States in putting through the United States Congress the National Banking Act.

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Letters passed between Rothschild Brothers, bankers of London, and Ikleheimer, Morton and Vandergould, of Wall Street, New York, two of which letters, together with a circular appearing with them, and which relate to the National Banking Act, are published below. More than thirty years ago a St. Louis magazine published these letters, and their authenticity has never been disproved. There is still living at this time in the state of New York a man upward of eighty-five years of age who had plates made reproducing these letters as they appeared in the publication above mentioned, and which plates he now has in his possession. He used these letters against the money changers during the Populist movement in the United States. There appears to be only ten days between the dates of the letters, and someone raised the point that in 1863 letters could not pass between London and New York within that time. The same gentleman above mentioned made inquiry of the Information Department of the Post Office Department at Washington concerning this matter. That department replied by letter, and from the letter signed by the Director of the Post Office Department, Division of International Postal Service, the following quotation is taken:

"With reference to your inquiry of September 4th last addressed to Mr. Frederick M. Kirby of the Washington Bureau, this city, requesting information with respect to the shortest time required for a letter to reach New York from London in the year 1863, you are informed that in the year 1863 the SS. "Scotia" crossed the Atlantic in 8 days 3 hours, which

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was a record at that time. The average time of mail steamers was about 9 days."

The letters between the Rothschild and the Ikleheimer firms, as well as the attached circular, are undoubtedly genuine. They are exactly in keeping with the history of the movements of the bankers and money powers since 1861 through all of their financial conspiracies, particularly in reference to the following things, to wit: The EXCEPTION CLAUSE on the greenbacks; the BANK ACT of 1863; the resumption of specie payment in 1875; the repeal of the PURCHASE CLAUSE of the Sherman law of 1878; which acts, of . course, are matters of public record. The above-mentioned letters and the circular are as follows:

"ROTHSCHILD BROTHERS BANKERS

"London, June 25th. 1863.

"Messrs. Ikleheimer, Morton and Vandergould,
No. 3 Wall Street, New York, U.S.A.

"DEAR SIRS: A Mr. John Sherman has written us from a town in Ohio, U.S.A., as to the profits that may be made in the National Banking business under a recent act of your Congress, a copy of which act accompanied his letter. Apparently this act has been drawn upon the plan formulated here last summer by the British Bankers' Association and by that Association recommended to our American friends as one that

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if enacted into law, would prove highly profitable to the banking fraternity throughout the world.

"Mr. Sherman declares that there has never before been such an opportunity for capitalists to accumulate money, as that presented by this act and that the old plan, of State Banks is so unpopular, that the new scheme will, by mere contrast, be most favorably regarded, notwithstanding the fact that it gives the National Banks an almost absolute control of the National finances. "The few who can understand the system," he says, "will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on its favors, that there will be no opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of the people, mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantages that capital derives from the system, will bear its burdens without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests."

"Please advise us fully as to this matter, and also, state whether or not you will be of assistance to us, if we conclude to establish a National Bank in the City of New York. If you are acquainted with Mr. Sherman (he appears to have introduced the National Banking act), we will be glad to know something of him. If we avail ourselves of the information he furnished, we will of course make due compensation.

"Awaiting your reply, we are,

"Your Respectful Servants,                  

ROTHSCHILD BROTHERS."


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"IKLEHEIMER, MORTON & VANDERGOULD

"New York July 5th. 1863.

"Messrs. Rothschild Brothers,
           London, England.

"DEAR SIRS: We beg leave to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of June 25th, in which you refer to a communication received from the Hon. John Sherman of Ohio, with reference to the advantages and profits of an American investment, under the provisions of our National Banking Act.

"The fact that Mr. Sherman speaks well of such an investment, or of any similar one, is certainly not without weight, for that gentleman possesses in a marked degree, the distinguishing characteristics of the successful modern financier. His temperament is such that whatever his feelings may be they never cause him to lose sight of the main chance. He is young, shrewd and ambitious. He has fixed his eye upon the presidency of the United States, and is already a member of Congress. He rightly thinks he has everything to gain both politically and financially (he has financial ambitions too), by being friendly

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with men and institutions having large financial resources, and which at times, are not too particular in their methods, either of obtaining governmental aid, or protecting themselves against unfriendly legislation. We trust him here implicitly. His intellect and ambition combine to make him exceedingly valuable to us. Indeed, we predict that if his life be spared, he will prove to be the best friend the monied interests of the world have ever had in America.

"As to the organization of a National Bank here, and the nature and profits of such an investment, we beg leave to refer to our printed circular enclosed herein. Inquiries by European capitalists, concerning this matter, have been so numerous, that for convenience we have had our views with regard to it put into printed form.

"Should you determine to organize a bank in this city, we shall be glad to aid you. We can easily find financial friends to make a satisfactory directory, and to fill any official positions not taken by the personal representatives you will send over.

"Your most obedient servants,                     
IKLEHEIMER, MORTON & VANDERGOULD"

This latter letter, in the paragraph next to the last, mentions a circular enclosed, and which circular is here inserted.

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"IKLEHEIMER, MORTON & VANDERGOULD

"Private Bankers, Brokers, Financial Agents, Etc.,

3 Wall Street,      New York City

"We have had so many inquiries of late as to the method of organizing national banks under the recent act of congress, and as to the profits that may reasonably be expected from such an investment, that we have thought it best to issue this brief circular as an answer to all questions of our friends and clients:

"1. Any number of persons, not less than five, may organize a national banking corporation.

"2. Except in cities having 6.000 inhabitants or less, a national bank can not have less than $1,000,000 capital.

"3. They are private corporations organized for private gain, and select their own officers and employes.

"4. They are not subject to the control of the state laws, except as congress may from time to time provide.

"5. They can receive deposits and loan the same for their own benefit.

"6. They can buy and sell bonds, and discount paper and do a general banking business.

"7. To start a national bank on the scale of $1,000,000 will require the purchase of that amount (par value) of U.S. Government bonds.

"8. U.S. Government bonds can now be purchased at 50 per cent discount, so that a bank of $1,000,000 capital can be started at this time with only $500,000.

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"9. These bonds must be deposited with the U.S. Treasurer at Washington, as security for the national bank currency, that on the making of the deposit will be furnished by the government to the bank.

"10. The U.S. Government will pay 6 per cent interest on the bonds, in gold, the interest being paid semi-annually. It will be seen that at the present price of bonds, the interest paid by the government, will of itself amount to 12 per cent in gold, on all the money invested.

"11. The U.S. Government, under the provisions of the national banking act, on having the bonds aforesaid deposited with its treasurer, will on the strength of such security, furnish national currency to the bank depositing the bonds, to the amount of 90 per cent of the face of the bonds, at an annual interest of only ONE per cent per annum. Thus the deposit of $1,000,000 will secure the issue of $900,000 in currency.

"12. This currency is printed by the U.S. Government in a form so like greenback money, that many people do not detect the difference, although the currency is but a promise of the bank to pay — that is, it is the bank's demand note, and must be signed by the bank's president before it can be used.

"13. The demand for money is so great that this currency can be readily loaned to the people across the counter of the bank at a discount at the rate of 10 per cent at 30 to 60 days' time, making about 12 per cent interest on the currency.

"14. The interest on the bonds, plus the interest on the currency which the bonds secure, plus the inci-

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dentals of the business ought to make the gross earnings of the bank amount to from 28 to 33 1-3 per cent. The amount of dividends that may be declared will depend largely upon the salaries the officers of the bank vote themselves, and the character and rental charges of the premises occupied by the bank as a place of business. In case it is thought best that the showing of profits should not appear too large, the now common plan of having the directors buy the bank buildings and then raising the rent and the salaries of the president and cashier may be adopted.

"15. National banks are privileged to either increase or contract their circulation at will and, of course, can grant or withhold loans as they may see fit. As the banks have a national organization, and can easily act together in withholding loans or extending them, it follows that they can by united action in refusing to make loans, cause a stringency in the money market and in a single week or even in a single day cause a decline in all the products of the country. The tremendous possibilities of speculation involved in this control of the money of a country like the United States, will be at once understood by all bankers.

"16. National banks pay no taxes on their bonds, nor on their capital, nor on their deposits. This exemption from taxation is based on the theory that the capital of these banks is invested in U.S. securities, and is a remarkable permission of the law.

"17. The secretary may deposit the public money with any bank at will, and to any amount. In the suit of Mr. Branch against the United States, reported in the 12th. volume of the U.S. Court of Claims Reports,

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at page 287, it was decided that such "Government deposits are rightfully mingled with the other funds of the bank, and are loaned or otherwise employed in the ordinary business of the bank, and the bank becomes the debtor of the United States precisely as it does to other depositors."

"Requesting that you will regard this circular as strictly confidential, and soliciting any favors in our line that you may have to extend, we are,

IKLEHEIMER, MORTON & VANDERGOULD."

The reader may draw his own conclusion as to how much aid the selfish bankers had from their political allies in the United States Congress.

"DRAGON IN THE SEAS"

These facts are samples of how a few men have been for many years in the government business and how these financial giants and professional politicians have exploited the people. They claim the right to rule, and did rule, and therefore, as the prophet of God says, Satan likened his offspring to a young lion, the strong or mighty king of his beastly organization. The lamentation that Ezekiel is directed to give against this beastly organization, however, says: "Yet art thou as a dragon in the seas." (E.R.V.) Big Business has indirectly been the ruler pictured by a lion, but in so doing it has manifested the monstrous proportions and cruel characteristics of a great crocodile or dragon winding about and hiding itself in the waters, that is, amongst the people, while it

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has befouled these and exploited the people; and while it has been so doing, the big politicians and big preachers have kept the people's attention turned away from Big Business. This monstrous instrument of the Devil has overflowed the earth and slopped it up and everything around it, and has also tried to drown the Lord's organization: "And the serpent [dragon] cast out of his mouth water as a flood [river, R.V.], after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood." — Rev. 12:15.

Big Business bears the earmarks of the Devil. Unable to accomplish the desire of self-aggrandizement in an open and clear way Satan and his offspring Big Business 'befoul the waters of the river', that is to say, cloud up and confuse the people in order to prevent detection of the movement and schemes of the wicked thing, and thus the people are deceived and oppressed. Satan and his offspring Big Business have trampled upon every clean thing and clean person with their muddy feet. The offices where the princes of Big Business operate are furnished in elegant and beautiful style and made to appear immaculately clean, but within these walls all manner of crooked schemes and filthy works are carried on by which the people are robbed and made to suffer. Here the products of the land, produced by the hard labor of many honest toilers, are juggled with and gambling schemes are worked out by which the people may be robbed of their honest gains and just dues.

The rich men, the great commercial giants of the world, have lifted themselves up and have taken the religionists, particularly the preachers, by one hand and the conscienceless politicians by the other, and

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they have walked on together forming a mutual-admiration society. This combination is pictured by the Revelator under the number 666, thus marking it as the beastly thing and offspring of Satan that controls the world. (See Revelation 13:18; Light, Book One, page 299.) This beastly monstrosity not only has exploited and robbed the people, but has oppressed and persecuted and killed them, including even those who have committed no greater offense than to boldly speak the truth as witnesses of Jehovah. It must now be apparent to all reasonable persons who give thought to the present unhappy situation, that no earthly power can relieve mankind from the terrible conditions that now exist.

God's time to act has approached. He has heard the cries of the oppressed and his time to give relief as the God of battle is at hand. Therefore he caused his witness to write concerning these modern times of oppression, these last days of Satan's arrogancy manifested by his chiefs in Big Business, big religion and big polities, and who therefore say, "We are rich and have need of nothing," as follows: "Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth. Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton;

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ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter. Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you." — Jas. 5:1-6.

In harmony with the foregoing, the Lord God caused Ezekiel to write concerning the monstrous, beastly Big Business: "Thus saith the Lord God, I will therefore spread out my net over thee with a company of many people; and they shall bring thee up in my net." (32: 3) Satan's commercial organization is no small fish, and its scales are made great, by which his preachers and professional politicians hang on. It is a powerful thing and in itself is too strong for any other power, except the Lord; but Jehovah's net is strong and will hold it and pull it up and destroy it. Satan and his organization, particularly the commercial element thereof, have fed themselves fat on the small and helpless ones, but their days are numbered and the time of retribution has come.

The ruin of Satan's gigantic organization will bring real satisfaction to honest hearts when they learn its fate: "Then will I leave thee upon the land, I will cast thee forth upon the open field, and will cause all the fowls of the heaven to remain upon thee, and I will fill the beasts of the whole earth with thee. And I will lay thy flesh upon the mountains, and fill the valleys with thy height. I will also water with thy blood the land wherein thou swimmest, even to the mountains; and the rivers shall be full of thee." — 32:4-6.

These words of the prophet of God disclose the vastness of the satanic organization. It now has an international bank that practically controls the money of the world. The overthrow of Big Business, and

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other parts of Satan's organization hanging on, will be a great slaughter similar to that pictured by the winepress of Revelation 14:19,20. (See Light, Book One, page 342.) Big Business, which is a bloated and a gluttonish thing, and made so by the subtle schemes of robbery and bloodshed, when it is destroyed will be a great spoil. Referring to the wicked thing of the Devil another prophet of God was caused to write: "Their slain also shall be cast out, and their stink shall come up out of their carcases, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood." (Isa. 34: 3) Then the righteous will have much cause to rejoice that God has vindicated his name. (Rev. 19:17) Jehovah then indicates his wrath towards Satan and his wicked Big Business organization by sending a gross darkness upon it: "And when I shall put thee out, I will cover the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light. All the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and set darkness upon thy land, saith the Lord God." — 32: 7, 8.

When Moses was in Egypt God literally darkened the land so that the Egyptians had no light. (Ex. 10: 21-23) Thus God will do to Satan's organization. "I form the light, and create darkness." (Isa. 45: 7) At that time in Egypt God's covenant people "had light in their dwellings", while the darkness covered all the Egyptians. Even so now and from now on, Jehovah's witnesses receive the light of the Lord which shines upon them through his Word and through his temple, unfolding to them the meaning of prophecy. This prophecy holds no light or hope for Big Business or for any other part of Satan's organization, but

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is dark. Those who are in a covenant with Jehovah and who now turn away from him will also go immediately into darkness. Jehovah's witnesses now on the earth by his favor shine forth as the stars that others may see the light and turn to righteousness. (Dan. 12:3) In doing so, however, these faithful witnesses of Jehovah do not seek or curry favor of Big Business, nor of any other part of Satan's organization, but steadfastly continue to proclaim God's message of truth which speaks vengeance upon every part of Satan's organization and shows to the people that their hope of peace and prosperity, life and happiness, is in Jehovah and his kingdom. At the same time the clergy, the false prophets of Satan's organization, and who are hirelings of Big Business, try to brighten the situation and to create an artificial light for the commercial and political elements; but in this they have completely failed to accomplish anything. The clergy take the side of Big Business and big politics in this time of industrial crisis, and together they deny to Jehovah's servants the use of the facilities now controlled by Big Business and which might be used to spread the message of the Lord's kingdom for the encouragement and comfort of the people.

There are many people who still pin their hopes to the skirts of the commercial wing of Satan's organization. Only the Lord can break the consolidated power of Big Business, together with other parts of Satan's organization, and he will do so; and when that comes to pass Big Business will be amazed and all who have hung on to it will be amazed: "I will also vex [margin, provoke to anger, or, grief] the hearts of many people, when I shall bring thy destruc-

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tion among the nations, into the countries which thou hast not known." — 32: 9.

Jehovah will completely destroy Big Business and her methods of exploiting the people: "Yea, I will make many people amazed at thee, and their kings shall be horribly afraid for thee, when I shall brandish my sword before them: and they shall tremble at every moment, every man for his own life, in the day of thy fall." — 32:10.

The rulers and the people shall know that the hand of Jehovah God is upon Satan's wicked organization and that Jehovah is the Supreme One. "For, lo, the kings were assembled, they passed by together. They saw it [Jehovah's sword in the hand of his mighty Officer, Christ Jesus], and so they marvelled; they were troubled, and hasted away. Fear took hold upon them there, and pain, as of a woman in travail. Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind." (Ps. 48: 4-7) "He shall judge the poor of the people, he shall save the children of the needy, and shall break in pieces the oppressor." (Ps. 72:4) Big Business has been the chief instrument in the hand of Satan to oppress the people, and both Satan and his instrument shall be completely broken.

Jehovah will use Christ Jesus, his mighty King, to lead his military forces against Satan's organization: "For thus saith the Lord God, The sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon thee. By the swords of the mighty will I cause thy multitude to fall, the terrible of the nations, all of them; and they shall spoil the pomp of Egypt, and all the multitude thereof shall be destroyed." — 32:11,12.

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Christ and his army will strike terror to the heart of Egypt and Satan, and his organization shall fall. (Isa. 9:6; Zech. 10:5) Jehovah shows himself in the capacity of a destroyer to his enemies; Abaddon, the mighty One over the army of destruction, is He. (Rev. 9:11) The disturbers and polluters of mankind will be destroyed and, as it is written: "[Thou] shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth." (Rev. 11:18) The hoofs of Satan's war organization shall never again tread down the people. Armageddon will put an end to all militarism.

LASTING PEACE WILL FOLLOW

"Then will I make their waters deep [clear, R.V.], and cause their rivers to run like oil, saith the Lord God." (32:14) This certainly pictures perfect peace. Most of the people are shallow-minded and easy to be disturbed by the enemy's propaganda; but the people shall come to know that Jehovah and his Word of truth are right and just, that Jehovah God is their real Friend and Benefactor, and they shall no longer be disturbed. The Lord will bring peace to them. The streams of the people he will cause to flow peaceably to the kingdom, and there will be no more friction, but the people will flow together "like oil". Jerusalem, God's organization, will be their joy. "For thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream: then shall ye suck, ye shall be borne upon her sides, and be dandled upon her knees." "And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above

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the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it." — Isa. 66:12; 2:2,3.

The destruction of Satan's oppressive organization must precede the restitution or healing and the prosperity of mankind. Big Business, therefore, God will destroy, and the people shall know that Jehovah is God. The operators of Big Business must be destroyed and multitudes of people on earth, who have been enslaved by this instrument of Satan, must be set free. Jehovah, by his Executive, will accomplish this, and the people shall know that it is Jehovah's hand that did it. "When I shall make the land of Egypt desolate, and the country shall be destitute of that whereof it was full, when I shall smite all them that dwell therein, then shall they know that I am the Lord. This is the lamentation wherewith they shall lament her: the daughters of the nations shall lament her; they shall lament for her, even for Egypt, and for all her multitude, saith the Lord God." (32:15,16) Those who survive and who have relied upon this wing of Satan's organization shall greatly lament.

THE FUNERAL

It would seem presumptuous to say just at what day or hour the Lord will execute his judgment upon Satan's organization at Armageddon, and therefore no attempt is made to comment upon the time that it will take place. Jesus makes it plain that the witness work must be done first and then will come the fight. Just fifteen days after Ezekiel had uttered the foregoing prophecy concerning Egypt the Lord told him to wail for the multitude of Egypt: "It came to pass also in the twelfth year, in the fifteenth day of the

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month, that the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Son of man, wail for the multitude of Egypt, and east them down, even her, and the daughters of the famous nations, unto the nether parts of the earth, with them that go down into the pit. Whom dost thou pass in beauty? go down, and be thou laid with the uncircumcised." — 32:17-19.

This is not to be understood that Ezekiel was to utter a "wail" out of sympathy for Satan's organization, but to deliver in a wailing tone this prophecy. Ezekiel was used not for violence against Egypt, but to prophesy; and in his prophecy he should wail, "and say that it shall go down" (Leeser); "and cause it to descend." (Rotherham) Satan's representatives have made funerals the occasion for exhibiting a great amount of hypocrisy. It would be appropriate for Jehovah's representative to speak ironically concerning the funeral of Satan's organization and to prophesy that the famous, powerful, 'honorable' and mighty must go down to oblivion. And so the prophet wailed: "Whom dost thou pass in beauty?" "Than whom art thou more precious?" (Rotherham) Manifestly these words are spoken ironically, as though the man would say: "You have prided yourself on being more beautiful and precious than others, but you are not, and you must go down and be laid with the unclean." The beauty and grandeur of Satan's crowd cannot save them. "Be thou laid with the (other) uncircumcised." — Leeser.

Big Business, militarism and all the hangers-on and preachers of Satan's organization, shall go down just alike. "They shall fall in the midst of them that are slain by the sword; she is delivered to the sword:

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draw her and all her multitudes. The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell with them that help him: they are gone down, they lie uncircumcised, slain by the sword." (32:20,21) The various parts of Satan's organization will greet each other in hell, doubtless in the same manner that Dives spoke in hell. (Luke 16:22-24) The various organizations and their power will be destroyed, but some of the erstwhile members thereof will probably survive and wail a while longer before they receive their just deserts. The whole company is mentioned. "Asshur is there, and all her company: his graves are about him; all of them slain, fallen by the sword: whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which caused terror in the land of the living." (32:22,23) Big politics, including the League of Nations, must receive a deadly blow from the sword of the Lord and go down with the other elements of the enemy organization. All parts of the enemy organization have caused terror in the earth and have particularly manifested their wickedness against those of God's people who are in the land of the living.

Verses twenty-four to thirty then describe the various elements of the enemy organization that have perished and gone down to the pit, and are therefore considered in the wail at the funeral. "There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave." Even as far back as Abraham's day Elam was a prominent power and had imperialistic ambitions and headed a league of kings. Abraham defeated them. (Gen. 14:1-16; Isa. 21: 2) Thus the Elamites seem well to

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foreshadow rulers with imperialist designs and in favor of the League of Nations, but opposed to God's kingdom and his Christ, the true seed of Abraham. "There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude." Tubal and Meshech were sons of Japheth, whence comes the white European race. They both did a commercial business with Tyre. (27:13) They carried on a slave trade. They traded in the persons of men. 'Gog was their prince.' (38: 2) They were eager to take spoil, and carried away silver and gold. In these was made manifest the greedy commercial spirit willing to deal in human flesh, and which was made manifest in the ones engaged therein by capturing the negroes of Africa and selling them in slavery to American plantation owners; and in more modern times by carrying Chinese coolies to the mines of South Africa and there using them as slaves. This shows a hard-hearted company of great rapacity that causes them to invade the land of the peaceful and contented and carry them away and sell them to further the selfish interest of Big Business.

The history of the chief countries of the seventh world power, Britain and the United States, and some of their chief men of these countries, and faithless politicians in particular, are here clearly pictured. In the past these nations have buried their supposed great men with much pomp and honor and glory, and the clergy have harangued the people concerning their greatness; but now they must lie with the uncircumcised and the unclean, and thus Ezekiel wails for their funeral. In the past "the mighty men" of the land of the seventh world power in particular have been buried with "their swords under their heads", that

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is to say, with military honors; but Ezekiel now tells their successors that they and all others of the Devil's crowd must go down in disgrace and dishonor, and with no hypocritical preachers to sing their praises or to eulogize them at the funeral.

Then mention is made of Edom, her mighty men, and the Zidonians. These were associates with Meshech and Tubal. These well picture the cool, shrewd financial gamblers and profiteers that have formulated divers and numerous schemes to exploit and rob the people. Also, the Zidonians well represent the "strong-arm squad" and "big navy" crowd that have fraudulently tried to use the Word of God to justify the building of great naval machines to publicly murder and destroy. The crooked politicians, the bribe-givers, and the bribe-takers, the public exploiters and public thieves, all share in that funeral concerning which Ezekiel is commanded to ironically wail.

Then, says the Lord: "Pharaoh shall see them, and shall be comforted over all his multitude, even Pharaoh and all his army slain by the sword, saith the Lord God." (32:31) This supports the conclusion that Satan will see his mighty organization fall and then he will be killed. (See Light, Book Two, page 186.) Only the Devil, or one having his spirit, could be comforted at the fall of others. He probably con-eludes that he has succeeded in defaming the name of Jehovah and in taking away this great multitude from Jehovah, and sees them plunged into destruction, and such brings to Satan some satisfaction. As Ezekiel was commanded to utter the prophetic wail for the slaying of Satan and his multitude, even so now the Ezekiel class utters the wail for the enemy

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organization because at the final funeral of Satan and his "big guns" there will be no clergymen present to extol the greatness of those that lie in hades. The witnesses of Jehovah see what God will bring to pass by Christ Jesus, and they tell others about it, even before the actual funeral of Satan's crowd takes place.

WHY PERMITTED

The prophecy of the thirty-second chapter of Ezekiel was delivered by the prophet about two months after his dumbness had ended and his mouth was opened at the coming of the refugee from Jerusalem to inform him that the city had fallen. He concluded this particular prophecy by delivering the message of Jehovah, to wit: "For I have caused my terror in the land of the living; and he shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain with the sword, even Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord God." — 32:32.

In this day of great suffering and distress many persons propound the question: "Why is Big Business permitted to exploit and oppress the people? If Jehovah is the God of justice and love, why does he not prevent such oppression?" Also they propound the question: "Why did God permit the Devil to blind the people and to build a massive organization by which he oppresses them? Why has God permitted Satan all these centuries to bring so much wickedness on mankind?"

The correct answer to these questions can be had only when we see the great issue or question that has long existed and which now must be for ever settled. That issue or question involves the word and name of

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Jehovah God. Is God true? and is his name worthy of all praise? This question must be settled right. Jehovah has permitted the whole matter to be made to appear so clear to his remnant that they may have no doubt about it, and soon he will make it plain and clear to others that all may know that he is the only true and almighty God, and the one from whom comes life. God has not permitted this wickedness in order to teach men lessons. He could not be a party to any such wicked thing. God created Lucifer a perfect creature and assigned him to his high position. Lucifer rebelled and defied Jehovah to put men on earth who would at all times, and under all circumstances, remain true and faithful to God. Lucifer not only declared God,to be a liar, but raised the issue that Jehovah God is not supreme and that his name is not worthy of praise. Lucifer, thereafter called Satan the Devil, became God's opposer, and as Satan the Devil he has gone his length in wickedness; and God has permitted him to go until His own due time arrives to prove that Jehovah is the Almighty God. The prophecy of Ezekiel stresses the point that all shall know that Jehovah is God.

Pharaoh the king of Egypt was without doubt a type of Satan the Devil. Egypt was for a time the abode of God's people, and Pharaoh and other Egyptians oppressed them while there. Pharaoh builded a mighty commercial machine by which he exploited and oppressed the people. He made slaves of the people and profited by their unpaid labor. He also builded a mighty military machine to support his commercial power. In this Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and his multitude, pictured the Devil and his mighty organi-

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zation that has exploited and oppressed the peoples of earth and particularly those who have been servants of Jehovah God. The Prophet Ezekiel is caused to say: "For I have caused my terror in the land of the living." Other translators rendered these words as follows: "For I have suffered his terror to be in the land of the living." (Roth.) This must mean that Pharaoh represented that which God originally had made but which became corrupted because of wickedness in the creature. Lucifer was put in the land of the living, but because of his own wicked covetousness he became Satan the old Serpent, the Dragon and Devil. It was the will of God that men should trade with each other, but on terms of justice and righteousness. One of the primary requirements of men is that they must do justly. (Mic. 6:8) Satan has perverted the whole manner of trade and barter. He began his commerce with the human family. Satan and his agents have made trade or commerce the most wicked and oppressive thing on earth, and that because of a covetous desire to possess what others rightfully had. They have not at all done justly. Pharaoh and his multitude of supporters therefore picture the Devil and his oppressive organization unjustly compelling the people to work for them, robbing them of their just possessions, and oppressing them.

Concerning Pharaoh and his multitude it is written: "For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth." — Ex. 9:15,16.

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These words apply with greater force to Satan himself and also to his organization. The primary application of the text is to Satan. The application to Pharaoh is only in a representative capacity as picturing Satan. Mark that the text does not say that God made Satan and approved his wickedness, nor that he made Pharaoh and approved his wickedness. The marginal reading of the text is this: "For this purpose have I let thee remain, for the purpose of showing thee my might, and that my name may be celebrated in all the earth." (Ex. 9:16, Roth.) "But for this cause have I allowed thee to remain, in order to show thee my power; and in order that they may proclaim my name throughout all the earth." — Leeser.

JEHOVAH'S NAME

When Lucifer rebelled and defied Jehovah, God could have immediately destroyed him; but, had he done so, there would have been no opportunity afforded to try out before creation the question which Lucifer had raised. God merely changed his name from Lucifer to Satan, meaning opposer of God, and then gave him the additional names of Devil, which means slanderer of God; and Serpent, meaning deceiver of others; and Dragon, the devourer of those who would serve God. This would put all creation on notice that God's opposer is the arch wicked one claiming to be equal to God. The word of God is always right, and he is right and true. The issue was then squarely joined and Satan must go his limit in order that the issue might be settled properly, conclusively, and for all time. God has permitted Satan to take his own wicked course until he has reached the limit.

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At the end of the world Satan's organization appears in its most hideous form, with almost all of the peoples of earth turned against God and into Satan's organization. Never was his organization so powerful as now. At this time his people see what the issue is and what is the true answer to the question so often propounded, to wit, Why has God permitted the wicked oppression to be upon the peoples of earth? The correct answer is that God in due time must prove to all creation that Satan is a liar, and a murderer, and that Jehovah is just, righteous and true, and that Jehovah's Word of truth and his name is above all reproach. All creation must see that the Devil is responsible for all the wickedness that has been upon creation. Now God will destroy Satan and his creation to settle the issue that Jehovah is supreme.

The foregoing text of Exodus 9:16 fully and completely corroborates this conclusion. The part of the text that is to be emphasized is THE NAME OF JEHOVAH GOD. The time must come when he would have his name placed where it properly belongs before all creation. His name must be proclaimed throughout the earth, because God says: 'I have permitted thee to remain, that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.' This must be done in God's due time, and that due time has arrived. Who are the people that will have such a privilege of proclaiming God's name? Necessarily those men and women on earth who maintain their integrity and prove their loyalty and faithfulness to God under the test. This must be done, therefore, by the people whom God has taken out of the world as a people for his name. (Acts 15:14,15) It is his people that

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he has called out of darkness into his marvelous light that they might show forth his praises. (1 Pet. 2:9,10) Thus the Scriptures identify the remnant now on earth whom God uses to proclaim his name. These scriptures, including the prophecies, were written for the special benefit of the remnant at this time.  — Rom. 15:4.

In harmony with his promise God has now brought to light the meaning of the prophecies which show why God permitted Satan to pursue his wicked course, and that it is that Satan may put forth all his efforts, and then God will demonstrate before all that Satan's efforts are in vain. God's time approaches for him to destroy Satan and his entire organization, both visible and invisible. Before doing so he first informs his remnant as to the meaning of his Word, and then he puts upon these his anointed a new name designating them as Jehovah's witnesses, and sends them forth to proclaim his Word and name to the nations before the destruction that shall come at Armageddon. It is therefore incumbent upon those who are in the covenant for the kingdom, and who truly love God, to make known these truths, that those who will hear may have due notice of God's purposes, and that he is the Supreme One, and the Blesser of those who love righteousness. For this reason Jehovah's witnesses are now going from place to place telling the people the truth and exhibiting to them books that contain the message of truth. Thus they are singing Jehovah's praises, proclaiming his name, making it known throughout the earth, and particularly within the borders of "Christendom", which is modern "Jerusalem", that the people may see who is supreme and

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whence their blessings must come. What a marvelous privilege the remnant thus enjoy!

God used Pharaoh to make a prophetic record disclosing the Devil and his wicked operations in opposition to God. He sent Moses down to Egypt to appear before Pharaoh that he might make a record under Jehovah's direction, and to the name of Jehovah. Moses mentioned Jehovah's name, and Pharaoh replied: 'Who is Jehovah, that I should obey him?' Pharaoh had builded a great commercial and military power in Egypt. This was a picture of Satan, who has builded the great commercial and military power of the earth. Pharaoh enslaved the Jews and robbed them, as well as oppressing and killing them. Satan, by his commercial and military Big Business, and its allies, has enslaved the people, exploited and robbed them, and unjustly killed the defenseless. It is therefore clearly seen that Pharaoh and his supporters pictured Satan and his organization. Pharaoh and his army were destroyed. Even so God will destroy Satan and his host. Before destroying Pharaoh God caused Moses and Aaron to serve them with notice and warning. Before the destruction of Satan and his organization God sends Jesus Christ, to whom is delivered the testimony, and Christ Jesus now present brings into his temple the remnant and directs the remnant, to whom he has committed the work to bear the testimony, to go throughout the land and serve notice and warning of God's purpose to destroy the enemy and to deliver his people; and this must be done before Armageddon.

Let the people now understand that their sufferings have come upon them through Satan and through his

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agencies, to wit, false religionists, Big Business, big politics, militarism, and all hangers-on, and that Satan is the invisible and wicked ruler of the world, and that now the time is at hand when God will destroy these wicked ones, and such destruction will result in releasing the people from oppression. This he does for his own righteous name's sake. He will make the people "know", that all may see that he is supreme. This he will make known fully at the great battle of Armageddon, at which time Satan and his crowd shall go down in disgrace. "For I have caused my terror in the land of the living; and he shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain with the sword, even Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord God." (32: 32) Those who love righteousness, and who now see the truth, will take their stand on the side of Jehovah God, and will have full faith and confidence in his word: "The Lord preserveth all them that love him: but all the wicked will he destroy." — Ps. 145:20.

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